T. E. Bearden 26 February 2003 In his hierarchies of symmetry [[1]], Michael Leyton has initiated what can only be called a great revolution in physics and thermodynamics. E.g., in classical electrodynamics, all EM fields, potentials, and their energy are presently assumed to be freely created from nothing at all by the associated source charge(s), in total violation to the conservation of energy law [[2]]. This "source charge problem"—unsolved prior to 2000 when a solution was proposed by the present author [[3]]—has long been called the most difficult problem in electrodynamics [[4]]. Yet a solution exists in particle physics, if one associates with an "isolated charge" its associated clustering virtual charges of opposite sign, due to the well-known polarization of the vacuum by a presented charge. The "isolated classical charge" thereby becomes a special dipolarity, and thus must exhibit the proven asymmetry of opposite charges [10,11]. Hence it continuously absorbs virtual photon energy from the seething vacuum, coherently integrates the virtual (subquantal) energy bits into observable quanta (photons)—a negative entropy interaction—and re-emits the energy as observable photons in all directions. This action by the source charge establishes and continuously replenishes the associated external EM fields and potentials and their energy, spreading radially outward at light speed in all directions. This saves the conservation of energy law, but it also clearly establishes that all EM fields, potentials, and their energy—in every circuit and every electrical device—come directly from the vacuum via the source charge's special asymmetry. The source charge continuously consumes positive entropy of the virtual state of the vacuum, and produces negative entropy in the observable state, in its ordered deterministic macroscopic potentials and fields spreading across the universe. Applying Leyton's nested hierarchies of symmetry [1], now this source charge process can be clearly defined and understood. Taking the virtual energy of the vacuum as randomized and at maximum entropy, that is a completely broken symmetry. The Leyton effect generates a Leyton symmetry at the next higher level, which may be interpreted as coherent integration by the spin of the charged particle of its continuous absorption of those disordered virtual photons. That produces the continuously-increasing, tentatively observable potential on the charge, which is that predicted Leyton symmetry.
In turn,
yet another broken symmetry exists at that level, so that the
continuously increasing potential is also continuously dissipated by
emission of observable photons. That is another broken symmetry,
which then must produce yet another Leyton symmetry at the This solves the long-vexing problem of the source charge and its associated deterministic EM fields and potentials, in consonance with the conservation of energy law. However, now there is also a broken symmetry at this new macroscopic level, so the macroscopic field energy can further be intercepted, collected, and dissipated to power circuits and devices and systems. The Leyton effect thus accounts for EM fields and potentials and their energy, for the ability to build EM circuits and power systems, and explains how all EM energy is directly extracted from the seething vacuum via the asymmetry of the source charge in its exchange with the vacuum.
The
implications for physics and thermodynamics are profound. In
electrodynamics, it means that electrical power systems freely powered
by cohered virtual energy from the vacuum are possible; in fact, all the
EM field energy in every power distribution system comes from the vacuum
via the source charges, not from cranking the shaft of the generator.
In thermodynamics, it shows that the present equating of a change of
external parameter (such as potential or field) as work [[5]]
is erroneous, since simply changing the
Leyton's
principle at last sheds clear light on the fundamental asymmetry problem
of thermodynamics: If only positive entropy can occur per the Second
Law, then how was the entropy initially ever so low in the first place?
[[6]]
Since Leyton's work shows that broken symmetry at one level requires
and generates The strong prediction of broken symmetry by Lee and Yang [[10]] and its experimental proof by Wu et al. [[11]] in 1957, initiated a great revolution across physics and won a nearly instant Nobel Prize in Dec. 1957 for Lee and Yang. Another such great revolution in physics and thermodynamics, initiated by Leyton's discovery of the nested hierarchy of symmetries, now poses a follow-on revolution equally as far reaching and important.
[1].
Michael Leyton, [2]. This appalling assumption that the conservation of energy law is false, is slipped past the student in the following manner of teaching: "We have here a source charge. Associated with the charge are its fields and potentials." That slips in the creation of those EM fields and potentials, and their energy, so smoothly that the students are unaware they have been "had" and led to assume that the source charge freely creates all that EM energy—reaching across the universe—out of nothing at all.
[3].
T. E. Bearden, "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole,"
[4].
E.g., see D. K. Sen,
[5].
(a) See Ralph Baierlein,
change of form of energy, not the
change of the magnitude of
some form of energy per se. Thus conventional thermodynamics is
completely wrong in that assumption, and it erroneously excludes the
widely accepted gauge freedom principle of quantum field theory, used
in modern physics and electrodynamics. Gauge freedom requires
that the magnitude of a potential—and hence the potential energy of
the system—can be freely changed at will, without performing work and
without cost to the system operator. (b) J. D. Jackson,
Classical Electrodynamics,
Second Edition, Wylie, New York, 1975, p. 219-221;
811-812 shows how gauge
freedom is conventionally and rather universally applied in classical
electrodynamics by symmetrically regauging the Maxwell-Heaviside
equations, making the resulting equations much easier to solve.
Symmetrical regauging actually produces a net stress potential and
therefore a rotation of the frame of the system out of the lab frame.
Electrodynamicists therefore err when they argue that the
symmetrically regauged system is still identical to the original
system.
[6].
See Huw Price,
[7].
D. J. Evans and
Lamberto Rondoni, "Comments on the Entropy of Nonequilibrium Steady
States,"
[8].
T. E. Bearden,
[9].
M. W. Evans, T. E. Bearden, and A. Labounsky, "The Most General Form
of the Vector Potential in Electrodynamics,"
[10].
(a) T. D. Lee, "Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions,"
[11].
C. S. Wu, E. Ambler, R. W. Hayward, D. D. Hoppes and R. P. Hudson,
"Experimental Test of Parity Conservation in Beta Decay," |