The Tom Bearden

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Date: Thu, 27 Dec 2001 11:30:03 -0600


The exact Maxwell equations are in his definitive paper published in 1865. Here's an excerpt from my database:

James Clerk Maxwell, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," Royal Society Transactions, Vol. CLV, 1865, p 459.  Read Dec. 8, 1864.  Also in  The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, 2 vols. bound as one, edited by W. D. Niven, Dover, New York, 1952, Vol. 1, p. 526-597.  Two errata are given on the unnumbered page prior to page 1 of Vol. 1.  In this paper Maxwell presents his seminal theory of electromagnetism, containing 20 equations in 20 unknowns.  His general equations of the electromagnetic field are given in Part III, General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field, p. 554-564.  On p. 561, he lists his 20 variables.  On p. 562, he summarizes the different subjects of the 20 equations, being three equations each for magnetic force, electric currents, electromotive force, electric elasticity, electric resistance, total currents; and one equation each for free electricity and  continuity.  In the paper, Maxwell adopts the approach of first arriving at the laws of induction and then deducing the mechanical attractions and repulsions.

Maxwell himself was already editing out the quaternion equations for the second edition of his book. It was obvious to him that the "electricians" (which is what they were called in those days) could and would never understand quaternions.  He died before the second edition was published.

The entire business of COP>1.0 systems is not yet to the "get a kit of parts and assemble it" stage.  The only device I know of that can be approached in such a manner is the Kawai patented engine.  If one STARTS with a high-efficiency magnetic motor (70% to 80%) to begin with, and then applies the Kawai process skillfully, with opto-isolated switching, the resulting unit should give a COP about double the original efficiency.

But that is an expensive process!  Least one could tackle that with, is about $20,000. or so.

The problem is that the circuit has to have a section or device in it that is in disequilibrium with the active vacuum, and receives and collects (then uses) excess energy from the vacuum.  That's one requirement, and nothing like that exists in the EE textbook anywhere.

The second requirement is that you have to violate the closed current loop arrangement.  There are ways of doing that, but they are all expensive, tricky at the present time, etc.

The problem can be posed this way:  A charged capacitor (or any dipole) or a permanent magnet is continuously pouring out EM energy in all directions, without ceasing.  There is no problem at all in getting the "thing" that extracts and pours out EM energy from the vacuum.  Any dipole (or any charge) does it in spades.

Okay, so how does one catch and use some of the free energy pouring from the magnet or from the dipole?  Everything we were taught in university, taught us how to do it unknowingly, but only in such fashion (using that closed current loop circuit) that we destroy the source dipole (the actual source of the transduced vacuum energy the circuit catches and uses) faster than we power the load.  So that circuit will always give a system with COP<1.0.

The theory in the textbook and everything we have all been formally taught to build, is only for guaranteed self-enforcing COP<1.0 systems.  (Forget superconductivity; if you count the overhead to keep it cool, it's WAY underunity).

One of the real problems in the loose-knit "community" of overunity researchers is that most only know the standard EM, and many only know trade-school electricity.  Yet fellows are led to believe that, hey, it's simple, you just go down to Radio Shack and get a kit of parts and build it. That approach has consistently failed, for decades and decades.  But the "field that is not yet a field" still is dominated by that kind of philosophy.  Partly for that reason, there are no COP>1.0 systems on the market now.

Research actually works in a somewhat straightforward fashion, even when difficult.  First, you have to have some idea or notion of what could (at least in theory) provide an EM system or circuit that is out-of-equilibrium in its energetic exchange with the vacuum.  Okay, that means you need to know something about what the exchange with the vacuum actually is, and what could possibly be done to break the equilibrium in that exchange.  Only systems in disequilibrium with an active vacuum can successfully operate at COP>1.0.

Once you have some notions in this area that differ from trade school electricity or armwaving about LC resonance, then you are ready to begin research.  So, what do you do?

Depending on your conceptualized idea of what will break that equilibrium, you have two things now to do:  (1) read the literature to see what actually may have been done (or not done) to investigate such an approach.  That's an arduous chore, and most of the overunity community just will not do it very much.  (2) then start to design some experiments to explore phenomenology. In short, you say, "If I put together this type of circuit, and do this to it, then -- according to the notion I'm investigating -- this should or could happen.  So then you do those experiments.  That's called phenomenology.  And you keep excellent lab notebooks on what your set-up is, what you tried, and what results you obtained or did not obtain. Document, document, document!  That is what you have to do.  Otherwise, six months and 200 experiments later, you will likely not have the foggiest notion of what you did back there or what happened.

That's the way you start.  If you persist, and continue to read and self-educate yourself from the literature, and design "what if" experiments and explore the phenomenology, eventually you will start to run across oddities that are not in the literature.  From then on, it's a matter of isolating a promising phenomenon, and concentrating on doing lots of phenomenology experiments involving it and around it.

One day, if you have patience and a bit of luck, you will then come across or replicate something you've been trying to do, and there will be a bit of overunity.  More energy than you input.

From then on, it's phenomenology, phenomenology, phenomenology experiments with it, until you know how it works, what the variables are, how it can be changed and how it cannot be changed without destroying it, etc.

THEN one is ready to start thinking about a prototype laboratory device, using that now-well-explored phenomenology.  So one then begins one's design of one's first lab prototype.

Something like that is the way that research in a totally new and relatively unexplored field goes down.

Note that one also had to acquire instruments (such as integrating multi-channel excellent oscilloscopes and professional probes for them), etc.  It winds up taking something like a $30,000 minimum lab to do it. $100,000 is a lot better.  Of course, with judicious use of salvage and surplus purchasing, one can reduce that $100 k a bit if one is lucky enough to find surplus stuff that one needs.

Once you really do get the COP>1.0 effects, then there are some totally new phenomena that arise.  I will not be releasing these phenomena or how to handle and deal with them, until my book is published next year.  It will have discussions of those phenomena and solutions to the problems they pose.

Anyway, that's what you are in for, if seriously interested in this area.

And another thing to do is to form, from the beginning, a good computer data base of references.  Here is a sample setup I found of great utility.

Abbott, Tyler A. and David J. Griffiths.  (1985)  "Acceleration without radiation."  American Journal of Physics, 53(12), Dec. 1985, p. 1203-1211.
         Abstract: When a point charge accelerates, it radiates.  Surprisingly, it is possible for an extended charge to accelerate without radiating.  For example, a nonrotating uniformly charged spherical shell (radius R) will not radiate if its center oscillates sinusoidally at a frequency such that sin(R/c) = 0.  The authors studied the radiation generated by electric currents in (1) infinite cylinders with longitudinal flow, (2) infinite cylinders with solenoidal flow, and (3) infinite planes.  In each case four specific examples are worked out, for which the retarded fields can be calculated exactly, and the authors derive a "Larmor-like" formula for the power radiated, in the limit of infinitesimal cross section.  They then consider sinusoidal currents with finite cross section.  For certain special frequencies the external fields are zero and there is no radiation. Therefore it is possible at certain frequencies for an extended charge to accelerate without radiating.  Conditions for this are given for several shapes.  Also, a particle experiences a radiation reaction force only when its acceleration changes.
         Comment:  When a charge accelerates, it of course acquires excess kinetic energy.  If it does not radiate any of the excess energy away, this becomes an energy-storage process of sorts.  Of course the kinetic energy can then be transposed into potential energy, by a variety of known methods.  The trick here would be:  If one can find a way to obtain that acceleration for free or very cheaply, the one could have the potential basis for an overunity process.
         Descriptors:  Radiation anomalies, radiation theory, radiation of accelerated charges, nonradiation of accelerated charges, radiation reaction force, change of acceleration of charges, charge anomalies, antenna anomalies.
         Availability: Issue of journal containing the article is in my personal library.

Here's the way an entry in your database might look if you've not yet had time to follow up on that specific thing that you noted:

Abdulloev, Kh. O.; and Kh. Kh. Muminov.  (1994)  "Semiclassical description of anisotropic magnets acted upon by constant external magnetic fields." Phys. Solid State, 36(1), Jan. 1994, p. 93-97.
         Abstract: To be added.
         Comment:  May be important to the Johnson nonlinear magnetic apparatuses and to all attempts to make a self-powered permanent magnet motor.  To be further investigated when time permits.
         Descriptors: To be added.
         Availability: To be obtained.

Here's another one, to give you a "flavor range" of sorts:

Abe, S.; T. Nakamura, Y. Sekimizu, and A. Matsushita.  (1988)  "Output characteristics of the compound magnetic sensitive wire in the disturbed magnetic field."  IEEE Translation Journal on Magnetics in Japan, 3(3), Mar. 1988, p. 219-225.
         Abstract: A vicalloy wire, made by twisting and other work-hardening processes, has compound layers with different magnetic characteristics. When an external AC magnetic field was applied to the twisted wire in the direction of its axis, a pulse voltage with a half-maximum width of about 20 sec was observed.  The induced EMF was more than 2 mV per turn.  The characteristics of the output voltage in the compound magnetic wire are described, and the operating principle is compared with that of Wiegand wire.  The operating range of the wire in a disturbed magnetic field was noted to increase with the number of twists.
         Comment: This pulse wire effect is one of the means of momentarily "opening" a magnetic system so that it receives and outputs energy from its external environment.  See other references on Wiegand wire, Wiegand effect, Wiegand patents, etc.
         Descriptors: Pulse wire, pulse wire effect, open dissipative systems (magnetic), nonconservative magnetic fields, Wiegand wire, Wiegand effect.         Availability: Copy is in personal database.

As you can see, serious research is very hard and quite painstaking work. It isn't glamorous.  One does not just whip up a kit of parts and get anywhere.

Anyway, hope that helps shed some light on the "mysterious" process, at least when one approaches it in scientific fashion.

The website and its creation and upkeep is graciously donated to me, so I've not considered selling it in any fashion.  It's there by the courtesy of some very fine individuals who do lots of work and donate their time, the site, etc.  It's a gift, as best we can make it,  to everyone seriously interested.

Best wishes to you in your own research,

Tom Bearden

Thanks for your quick response.

3 Questions:

1. Assuming that building a generator with COPS >1 is within my capability, what is the simplest device I can build that shows a COP > 1? (I assume I can compute this by computing watts in and comparing it to watts out)

2. Have you thought about putting your website on a cdrom/dvdrom and selling it to interested parties?

3. I have read that Maxwell's original quaternion equations were edited out of the 2nd and subsequent editions of his Treatise on Electromagnetism. In particular, I was under the impression that the 20 equations in 20 quaternion variables were not present in D.W. Niven's Dover edition of the 2 volumes. This morning I read at your website (which I found subsequent to emailing you) that those equations are in fact included in Niven's book in pages 55x-56y. I went right over to Borders to check, but there was not a copy of Niven's book in the store or at the local public library. Are the quaternion equations actually in the Dover book? (I'll order it today if they are)