|Date: Sun, 17 Mar 2002
Missed that one, but it is very timely. One of the mechanisms in my book could possibly explain what generates a big bang. If so, then a 4-universe blows out in higher dimensional space from another 4-universe in which this process occurs, "birthing" a new and rapidly expanding 4-universe. It also may explain what generates the x-ray burster and gamma ray burster, including such phenomena that occur in the earth's atmosphere.
The mechanism occurs once the work-energy theorem is corrected to include multiple use (change of form) of the same original energy. There is no conservation of work law in nature. I often ask interested grad students: "How many joules of work can you get from one joule of energy?" Invariably the answer is "One!" And that's wrong. I then exactly define work for them as "the changing of the form of energy". We then point out that, given a joule input energy to a "form changer", the joule does one joule of work on that transducer, but then you still have a joule of energy left -- just in a different form. So that joule in its altered form can do another joule of work on a second "change of form" entity and process, but you still have a joule of energy remaining in different form!
Now suppose you have two retroreflectors face to face. One can imagine them as phase conjugators, if one wishes. You steadily input one watt of power (one joule per second) that is perpendicular to the two mirrors, and between them. The first retroreflector changes the form of the energy (by changing its direction). For perfect retroreflection, each joule of energy that is input in that special direction will ping pong back and forth between the mirrors, doing one joule of work on each mirror for each reflection. Since I'm steadily inputting one joule per second, each second there is an additional joule added, which continues thereafter. So you can build up as much energy density between the retroreflectors as desired, without limit, in this gedanken experiment. And you can build up any amount of work wished, being done on each retroreflector each reflection.
Of course in the real world things are not perfect. The mirrors don't retroreflect all the energy each time, but only some fraction. Also, as the mirror heats up (as the energy density interacting grows), it changes its reflectivity. Also, the mirror transmits some of the energy through the material, and that escapes.
Anyway, it is easy to play around with that and see that, for a steady one-watt input, you can actually have a greater energy density between the mirrors, and also a greater energy escaping the two mirrors! This isn't a problem, because all EM 3-space energy comes from the time domain anyway (that's in the book), and you are just increasing the curvature of local spacetime, which curvature interacts back on mass to add more energy in the interactions.
Anyway, when the nonlinearity gets so great that the process becomes limiting, then one has a "stability" level that is reached (in the mirror case). In the case of the particles of an exploding gas acting as such retroreflectors, the biggest "spoiler" of the exponential growth is the acceleration of the mass particles which destroy the retroreflecting geometry. So what one has is a sudden exponential build-up heading up toward infinite energy density (burst-out from this 4-space universe), followed (after a short time delay) by sudden rupture of the retroreflecting geometry (as the particles reach very fast acceleration). This results in a catastrophic decay of the process and its energy density, by emission of a giant pulse. Depending on the individual case, that pulse can be in the x-ray region, in the gamma region, or even higher.
Also, the process can and does often re-ignite, and so re-ignition is explained. Further, the accelerated gas that did the "geometrical quenching" represents a hotter gas; hence the "afterglow" that remains behind a gamma burster quenching or x-ray quenching, etc.
The process can even be demonstrated on the bench, using laser light and colloidal suspensions, or fine semiconducting powders. The fellows doing those experiments have just not yet realized the necessary correction to the work-energy theorem, which in present form only considers the energy changing its form once and thus a joule of energy doing only a joule of work.
One has to be careful when one just assumes the old classical equilibrium thermodynamics. It does not even apply to disequilibrium systems, where entropy cannot even be calculated. So a great number of scientists who just react with the second law of classical thermodynamics (seeming never to have heard of the separate thermodynamics of systems far from equilibrium with an active environment), is the biggest scientific mindset problem blocking immediate funding and development of COP>1.0 electrical power systems, and also self-powering electrical power systems.
But little by little, we believe that old die-hard attitude, of upholding century-old stuff already updated and corrected in physics, may be changing.
At any rate, I'm proposing the mechanism in the forthcoming book, and then the astronomers with scientific method will find out whether it's valid or not.
So I appreciate the information!
Date: Sat, 16 Mar 2002