To:
Amherst College, Box 2262
Amherst, MA 01002
Date: Thu, 8 Mar 2001 01:42:07 0600
Personal communication
Dear Dr. Romer:
This is not a submission of a manuscript, but a personal communication
to
you on a matter of great importance in physics, directly related
to endnote
#24 of your seminal editorial "Heat is not a noun,"
American Journal of
Physics, 69(2), Feb. 2001, p. 107109.
It will take a little exposition, so please bear with me and read this
when
you have the spare time to do so. We are going to show you how
your keen
insight can be extended to solve some extraordinarily formidable
foundations
problems in present electrodynamics. We will also show how to
apply the
implications of your insight to totally solve the present electrical
energy
crisis permanently.
In your endnote #24, you took to task (quoting) "...that dreadful
diagram
purporting to show the electric and magnetic fields of a plane wave,
as a
function of position (and/or time?) that besmirch the pages of almost
every
introductory book. ...it is a horrible diagram. 'Misleading'
would be too
kind a word; 'wrong' is more accurate." "...perhaps
then, for historical
interest, [we should] find out how that diagram came to contaminate
our
literature in the first place."
Dr. Romer, you have lifted the corner of a dark cover concealing one
of the
most important flaws in electrodynamics and in fact in all of physics:
the
unwitting and pervasive substitution of the effect for the cause.
A
marvelous extension to the present physics is enabled if one removes
this
terrible non sequitur in physics, and particularly in electrodynamics.
For
openers, one solves what has been called the most important problem in
electrodynamics (the problem of the source charge and the association
of its
fields and potentials and their energy). I will solve that
problem for you
in this informal writeup. I will also explain how to extract
enormous EM
energy from the vacuum, anywhere and anytime, easily. Extracting
it is
easy; catching it and using it to power loads without killing the
extraction
process, is another matter.
One also gets a unified field theory, engineerable by novel
electrodynamic
means, as is steadily being shown by a series of rigorous AIAS
papers
published in various leading journals (and more than 90 of them
carried on a
Department of Energy website restricted primarily to DoE scientists).
Dr.
Myron Evans, Director of the AIAS, has over 600 papers published in
the
literature, including such journals as Physical Review, Foundations of
Physics, Physica Scripta, etc. Many of the other AIAS coauthors are
noted
theoreticians and scientists.
The early pioneers (Maxwell etc.) of electrodynamics all assumed a
material
ether filling all space. To them, there was not a single point
in the
entire universe that was devoid of matter, because the ether was
present
there. Hence their outlook as to the nature of EM fields etc.
was quite
material. Faraday conceived his "lines of force" as
physical, taut strings,
so that perturbations were "plucking these taut strings".
Maxwell himself
points out in his famous "Treatise" that he specifically
captured the
thinking of Faraday in his theory. In fact, Maxwell wrote a
material fluid
flow dynamics theory.
In the light of more modern knowledge, let us see the impact of these
and
similar early but still retained erroneous electrodynamics
assumptions.
First, observation/detection is totally spatial, as is well known in
quantum
mechanics. In fact, observation is a d/dt operator imposed upon
4space
(LLLT spacetime), yielding a frozen instantaneous snapshot LLL of an
ongoing 4space dynamic process. At the very next instant, that
particular
previous observation no longer persists. Why?
Well, no observable persists, since it is only an instant frozen
3space
snapshot, at a single point in time, a priori. Here again we
have another
horrendous non sequitur in all of physics: the assumption that
observables
"continue to exist" and therefore persist in time in a
passive manner. In
fact, there is an interactive process that generates their
persistence,
involves time, and continually changes mass into masstime and back to
mass,
etc. Wit your permission we will pass discussing that mechanism
till
another time (pun intended!).
So what we conceive as "an observable such as mass, traveling
through space
and persisting in time while doing so", is actually an iterative,
continual
series of these frozen 3space snapshots or observations, much like
the
frames of a motion picture film. We ourselves mentally add the
"continuity"
to provide "the sensed motion", but rigorously what is
actually "observed"
is not continuous, but is a vast continual series of those frozen
3space
snapshots.
We're getting directly at that atrocious diagram!
Each snapshot is an effect, not a cause, because it was the output of
the
observation process whereby a 4space causal entity (non observed a
priori)
interacts with a previously observed frozen entity (say, a unit point
charge
at some point in space) to produce the observation (change or effect
generated in that interacting observed charge) as the "next
instantaneous
observation".
The usual "representation" of a "3space EM wave"
propagating in 3space is
indeed atrocious, just as you stated! It is actually just an
iterative
succession of such instantaneously frozen snapshots in 3space, one
after
the other. There is no such thing as that set of snapshots
independently
existing in spacetime, prior to interaction with charge in that series
of
interactions and observations, unless we wish to discard quantum
mechanics
and the laws of logic.
There is, however, a continual iterative stream of those observations

those frozen 3space snapshots  that we interpret (erroneously) by
recall
from memory as the "EM wavefront propagating in 3space".
As you eloquently
pointed out, that is not so, and it is atrocious. An
observation, being an
absolutely frozen entity, cannot "move through time" anyway,
since it cannot
persist anyway, nor can it move. A change to an observable can
only be
another observable snapshot of the ongoing 4space entity and
action, which
is then compared to the first snapshot and a difference noted.
In short, a great stream of "frozen effects" (frozen instant
observations)
does not constitute a "picture" of the ongoing 4space
action, but only a
series of frozen 3space intersections involving the interaction of
that
fixed observed (3space) charge with the ongoing causal 4space
entity. If
we add and integrate a series of 3space pieces, we do not get a
4space
entity! Instead, we get a longer or bigger 3space slice/piece,
but one for
which each piece of it only existed at a single point in time as a
3space
"slice" at that moment. That is precisely what is
wrong with that horrible
illustration.
But it is also "wrong" with electrodynamics itself!
Electrodynamicists
mistakenly conclude that the same effect "series of static
3slices" which
they might call, e.g., the "field" in a case where the field
is the
subject  is the same as the 4space continuous causal field prior to
observation interaction with charge at all. Well, LLLT is
definitely not
LLL, nor is it n(LLL) where n is some large but finite number of
3slices
LLL.
So the field concept is dichotomously used in two completely
contradictory
manners in electrodynamics:
(1) it is considered to be in 4space prior to the observing/detecting
interaction with the observable (such as a unit point
3space charge), and
it is also considered to be a 3space entity after that interaction.
The
dimensions of the two entities are not the same, and neither are the
dynamics. The causal EM wave is dynamic and 4spatial, the
effect "3space
EM wave" (ugh!) is static and 3spatial. Assuming
that the two are the
same thing is a gross non sequitur.
In fact, it substitutes the effect for the cause, a rather gross
violation
of the causal principle itself.
(2) then a feeble attempt at glossing over the illogic is used by the
trite
statement that "the field (meaning that atrocious series of
frozen 3space
snapshots) remains in the absence of charge, but the force goes to
zero."
Well, if the field is a forcefield, it cannot be a "nonforce
field!" Else
opposites are identical.
So of what importance is all that?
It is of great importance. Let me show you one very startling
thing that
comes out of correcting this "biggest foundations non sequitur in
physics,
that of substituting the effect for the cause".
Consider a very special paper by E.T. Whittaker in 1903, "On the
Partial
Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics," Mathematische
Annalen, Vol.
57, 1903, p. 333355. [I can send you a pdf of the paper if you
do not have
it and are interested]. In this muchneglected paper, E.T.
Whittaker
decomposed the socalled "static" potential into a harmonic
set of
bidirectional longitudinal EM wavepairs, where each pair consists of a
longitudinal 3space wave (an asobserved wave) and its longitudinal
phase
conjugate wave (considered unwittingly as having also interacted with
charge, and therefore as being shifted into 3space as an
"asobserved" wave
with inversed parity). In short, Whittaker  as has everyone
since him 
unwittingly assumed that "iterative continual
observation" interaction in
there for the phase conjugate wave also. In so doing, he came up
with two
effect "waves" that are the outputs of the assumed
observation process.
Neither of these waves is a wave in spacetime at all, but the
two in
ensemble are an example of the same thing you objected to in your
cogent
commentary on that abominable "illustration".
In short, Whittaker invoked observation as a process with two effects,
rather than with a cause and an effect, with the interaction with the
observing/interacting unit point charge being assumed for both waves.
Both
Whittaker and everyone since then has made the same error in
interpreting
that seminal Whittaker decomposition. This misinterpretation of
the
decomposition has until now hidden one of the greatest secrets of all
times
in Nature's electrodynamics!
Let us correct the interpretation, and uproot that great secret to the
light
of day.
First, for observation to occur, one must have cause acting upon
the
affected (observable) entity, and an effect (observable change) must
be
produced in, on, or of that affected (interacting) entity. One
must not
have two effects (two observables) and the affected entity (another
observable and therefore another effect)! Again, assuming that
one has
three effects (observables) constituting the observation process is a
logical non sequitur of first rank.
Let us now correct that logical non sequitur made by Whittaker and
other
physicists and electrodynamicists, and see where it leads us.
First, we go to particle physics, where broken symmetry was discovered
in
the 1950s. Lee, e.g., received a Nobel prize for his work in
that area.
Lee also showed that any dipole is a broken 3symmetry in its violent
energy
exchange with the active vacuum.
Well, a scalar potential is a dipolarity; always a potential is
actually a
difference between two potentials, so to speak. So the potential
itself
represents a broken 3symmetry in an energy flow exchange with the
active
vacuum.
Let us further examine that interesting broken symmetry aspect.
It means
that the "static" potential is a process whereby energy is
received from the
vacuum in one form, not observable and hence unusable, but is output
in
observable (usable) form. In short, the dipolarity or dipole
receives and
absorbs (QM view) virtual photons, integrates them into observable
size, and
emits real, observable EM energy ("continual observation"
snapshots of the
latter being assumed).
In physics, all observation is 3spatial, as is wellknown. And
3space is
the realm of the observed. The EM energy from the vacuum is not
received in
3spatial (observable) form, else there would be no broken 3symmetry
of the
dipolarity.
We can also experimentally verify that there is no 3space input of EM
energy to the potential  e.g., to the potential between the ends of
any
source dipole, because we cannot measure any 3space observable energy
feeding the charges of the dipole. Instead, observable 3space
energy is
continuously pouring out of the dipole.
Let us continue now with the notion of a real dipole of separated
source
charges, with our "scalar potential" between its ends, so we
have something
concrete in mind.
Our instruments prove that, first, there is a continual emission of EM
energy in all directions in 3space (of the kind in that atrocious
diagram;
a "series of iterative filmsnapshots"). That is the
way it is
conventionally represented, as if observed at each and every point
successively in that 3space, and along every radial.
But our instruments also prove that, secondly, there is no such
observable
input of EM energy in that same 3space to the dipole. Bummer!
That is
precisely what has stopped the electrodynamicists from solving that
vexing
problem of where all the energy pouring out of the source dipole is
coming
from, and how! They unconsciously assume that the only EM energy
input is
in 3space. That it totally wrong. And further, the
conservation of energy
law does not require that energy be conserved in 3space!
Instead,
rigorously  if we are using a 4space (i.e., spacetime) model  it
requires that energy be conserved in 4space. The assumption of
the extra
condition of 3space energy conservation is an added and arbitrary
extra
condition.
Since electrodynamics has not resolved this "source dipole and
its
associated fields and potentials" problem, it has stopped work on
the
problem and implied that every dipole in the universe is a perpetual
motion
machine, freely creating all that EM energy it continuously pours out
across
space, in all directions, creating its associated fields and
potentials.
That implicit assumption, if true, of course destroys the conservation
of
energy law.
It isn't true, and the energy conservation law is alive and well!
We can experimentally prove that the source dipole does continuously
pour
out energy in all directions in 3space, without ceasing, as follows:
In a gedanken experiment, we set instruments every 300 million meters
or so,
along a radial line from an origin in the lab. With the
instruments and
clocks synchronized, we suddenly form a dipole at the origin.
One second
later, the first instrument reads. A second later, the second
instrument
reads. And so on. But it is not a "passing
pulse", because whatever
reading the instrument makes as the forward edge of the energy flow
reaches
it, is then continuously maintained thereafter. This proves that
the energy
is poured out continuously and at the speed of light, and in any (and
all)
directions in 3space, and it continues to pour out at exactly the
same rate
so long as that dipole remains intact.
Dipoles in the original matter of the universe have been pouring out
EM
energy in that fashion for some 15 billion years, and they have not
"exhausted" their unobserved energy input source yet.
A newly formed simple dipole, e.g., in one year will have poured out
energy
into a spherical volume of space that is a lightyear in radius.
Wait
another year, and that volume of space whose energy density has been
changed
will be two light years in radius. The dipoles in the original
matter have
filled the universe itself with that energy outpouring from them.
In other words, an incredible amount of EM energy has been and is
being
poured out into space from every dipole in the universe. And
electrodynamicists have had not the foggiest notion of where that
mindboggling amount of outpoured EM energy has come from.
Unless we wish to totally discard the conservation of energy law, the
we
must have an equal input of energy from outside 3space, going into
each and
every dipole continuously. In 4space, that only leaves the
fourth axis,
along which and from which the input energy must move into the dipole.
And so it does. If we reinterpret that phase conjugate half set
of the
Whittaker decomposition, before observation has occurred, it then is a
harmonic set of longitudinal EM waves moving in the timedimension,
into the
source dipole (parity is not inversed because no interaction with
charge has
occurred to shift it into 3space.
So voila! We have strangely (but quite rigorously) solved what
Sen referred
to in this manner: "The connection between the field and its
source has
always been and still is the most difficult problem in classical and
quantum
electrodynamics." [D.K. Sen, Fields and/or Particles,
Academic Press,
London and New York, 1968, p. viii.].
We express our reasoning as follows: (1) We know from particle
physics that
the source dipole is a broken 3symmetry in its flux exchange with the
vacuum. This means that we know the energy is received from the
vacuum in
an unobservable form, absorbed by the dipole, and emitted as
observable EM
energy. It remains to translate that into classical
electrodynamics rather
than quantum physics. (2) The time domain is the only domain
outside
3space, in the standard 4space model. (3) Anything in the time
domain
exclusively, is indeed nonobservable, since the d/dt observation
operator
destroys time and all its internal structure and dynamics whenever
observation occurs. (4) looking for a "3space" input
is looking for an
"observable" EM energy input, which would in fact violate
the known broken
3symmetry of the source dipole.
Let me digress now to speak of fundamental units. As is
wellknown, the
fundamental units one chooses to make his physic model from, are an
arbitrary choice. One can, if one wishes, make a perfectly valid
(but
mentally nightmarish!) physics using only a single fundamental unit.
In
that case, all other "fundamental units" in the present
model become
functions of that single fundamental unit.
Suppose, e.g., that we make the joule our only fundamental unit.
Then
"mass" becomes totally a function of energy  and we have
no heartburn with
that one since the Einstein revolution and the nuclear age. But
then "time"
also becomes totally a function of energy  and that surprises us,
because
we have unconsciously been taught (erroneously) that "time is a
flowing
river down which a mass drifts like a drifting boat". That
is not the
nature of time at all; the totality of the photon interactions with a
mass
create that mass's "motion through time". I can later
explain that to you
also, if you wish, but let us pass it for now.
It turns out that time is spatial energy compacted by the factor
csquared,
so it has the same energy density as mass, but in the time axis
instead of
3space. Intuitively, if we are interested in cause and effect,
the energy
of the cause should be equal to the energy of the effect (in this
case,
mass). After one reflects a moment, one also sees that
"time energy" is
required to "drive" a mass through time, just as
"spatial" energy is
required to "drive" a mass through space. The notion
that mass in an
inertial frame moves through "empty space with no reaction"
is false; it
continually moves through the energetics of spacetime, and interacts
continuously with it.
Anyway, from still another viewpoint there is no magic in EM energy
currents
moving in the time domain! Quantum field theory already
recognizes multiple
polarizations of the photon, including transverse, longitudinal, and
timepolarized. Thus it implies a timepolarized EM wave also.
A
longitudinal EM wave moving in the time domain oscillates along its
line of
travel which is indeed oscillating in the time domain, or
"timepolarized".
Hence it is a proper timepolarized EM wave.
The solution to the "source dipole" problem is that the
phase conjugate wave
halfset of the Whittaker decomposition, when reinterpreted, is the
incoming
EM energy in the time domain, continuously input to the charges of the
dipole. The charges interact in the imaginary plane (the time
domain), and
absorb the timeenergy, then transduce it into 3space, and emit it in
all
directions as Whittaker's set of real observable longitudinal EM waves
in
all directions in 3space (as observed). The timeenergy waves
input to the
dipole cannot be observed, since observation destroys time and its
constituents.
So all 3spatial EM energy comes from the time domain! Broken
3symmetry of
the source dipole immediately releases our arbitrary additional
restriction
on nature's energy conservation law  i.e., our insistence that the
energy
input for conservation must be input in 33space. By removing
these
arbitrary "shackles" from nature's feet, we allow nature to
joyously resume
here muchpreferred 4symmetry in EM energy flow: the circulation of
EM
energy from the time domain into 3space, and outpouring of that
energy in
all directions in 3space, at the speed of light.
Now let us solve the sourcecharge problem as well. That one is now
easy to
resolve.
We know from quantum mechanics that any "isolated"
observable charge is
actually clustered around by virtual charges of opposite sign.
So we simply
take one of these clustering opposite charges while it exists, and a
differential piece of the observable charge, and we have a composite
dipole.
Hence the "isolated charge' may be represented as a grouping of
such
momentary dipoles, each (while it exists) with a scalar potential
between
its poles, and hence each subject to the same decomposition and
reinterpretation we have done.
So that is why the source charge can "sit there" and pour
out EM energy in
3space (as observed) continuously, and indefinitely. It is also
continuously absorbing EM energy from the time domain. As a set
of
composite dipoles, it is a broken 3symmetry in EM energy flow. Hence
it
exhibits nature's preferred 4symmetry in energy flow, between the
timedomain and 3space.
Note also that, to the 3space observer, this 4symmetry is pure
negentropic. It is a continuous and ongoing (and spreading)
reordering of
the vacuum energy, in the form of the reinterpreted Whittaker
decomposition.
We can easily engineer negentropy! Just make a little dipole,
and nature
happily starts pouring out energy and reordering part of the vacuum,
with
that reordering spreading at the speed of light, steadily increasing
all the
while.
So reinterpreting Whittaker's marvelous decomposition tells us many
things:
(1) the source charge or dipole does indeed continuously receive and
absorb
its input energy from the time domain, (2) it continuously
transduces its
absorbed energy to real 3space energy (as observed!), and (3) it
continually outputs its absorbed and transduced timeenergy as 3space
energy emitted in all directions in 3space (as continually observed).
So the terrible foundations problem of the source charge and source
dipole
is resolved, and the energy conservation law is maintained.
We have also uncovered a most important thing: Given a little
broken
3symmetry in EM energy flow, a more primary 4symmetry emerges
automatically. In short, every potential and every dipolarity
and every
charge is such a broken 3symmetry and an example of the new,
preferred
4symmetry of EM flow, with input flow in the timedomain
(nonobservable!)
and output flow (as continually observed in a series of 3snapshots)
in all
directions in 3space.
This also resolves the logical cause and effect problem for
observation.
This 4symmetry is a purely negentropic process, once the dipole is
established! Well, we should have known that from the gauge
freedom axiom
in gauge field theory anyway! That axiom says that we are free
to change
the potentials anytime, freely and at will. In electrodynamics,
that means
we can freely change the potentials at will, anytime we wish.
But that
means we can freely change the potential energy of a Maxwellian system
at
will, whenever we wish. It costs nothing  at least in theory;
in the real
world we have to pay a little for switching  to suddenly
potentialize an
EM system, prior to the time the Drude electrons relax and current
flow
begins.
I have applied this great new 4symmetry in EM energy flow, that is
freely
evoked and persists indefinitely after one pays a little to make
the dipole
and thus a little broken 3symmetry, to produce EM energy freely from
the
vacuum. Without going into it, I refer you to our forthcoming
paper, M.W.
Evans, P.K. Anastasovski, T.E. Bearden et al. (15 authors),
"Explanation of
the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator in O(3)
Electrodynamics," Found.
Phys. Lett. 14(1), Feb. 2001, p. 8794. Indeed, we can use this
negentropic
process to extract as much EM energy from the vacuum as we wish,
anywhere,
anytime, for peanuts. Let us now move to discuss that area.
First, let me point out another astounding result that comes from
resolving
this "source charge and source dipole" foundations problem.
Generators do not use any of the shaft energy input to them  even in
transduced form  to power their external circuits! A generator
itself
does not add a single watt to the power line, and neither does a
battery's
chemical energy dissipation add a single watt to its attached circuit.
Neither does burning all those hydrocarbons, consuming all those
nuclear
fuel rods, building all those dams, etc. to provide our conventional
power
systems and grid. None of that enormous destruction of the
biosphere and
pollution of it has ever directly produced one watt on the electrical
power
line.
Am I insane? No. Just follow the energy flow, in light of
what we now
know. Here's how it works.
Typically we burn some fuel to boil water and make steam, and use the
steam
to power a steam turbine which forcibly rotates the shaft of the
generator,
thereby inputting mechanical shaft energy into the generator. So
far so
good. That took care of all the hydrocarbon burning and fuel rod
consuming,
extraction and transport of the oil, etc.
This input of the shaft energy forcibly rotates the rotor against
internal
resistance, forming an internal magnetic field. Assuming a 100%
efficient
generator with no internal losses whatsoever, this means that the
mechanical
shaft energy input has now been totally transduced into internal
magnetic
field energy. So far so good.
So what does that magnetic field energy do? It is totally
dissipated upon
the internal charges of the generator, performing work on them and
forcing
the positive charges in one direction and the negative charges in the
other
direction. That dissipation of the energy in the internal
magnetic field
forms a source dipole inside the generator, connected to the
terminals.
And that is all the generator does. Period. None of the
energy transduced
from that shaft input, went roaring out of the terminals and down
through
space outside the conductors of the power line. Not a single
watt. So let
us turn to particle physics to find out what happens next, because it
does
not yet appear in the electrodynamics model, even though proven.
The internal source dipole, once formed, is a great broken
symmetry in the
vacuum flux, as we discussed and as is wellknown in particle physics.
But
the proven and wellknown vacuum interaction with the generator and
the
dipole charges is not even modeled in the classical EM theory
used by the
scientists and engineers to build electrical power systems  much
less a
broken symmetry in that active exchange! That's atrocious, since
it's been
proven in particle physics for nearly a half century, Nobel prizes
awarded,
etc. But the hoary old 136year old MaxwellHeaviside model,
further
curtailed by Lorentz symmetrical regauging, does not incorporate what
has
already been proven in physics. It does not accurately  or
even  model
the situation as it is and as it is known to be.
Let us continue.
Once that dipole is formed, it extracts enormous EM energy from the
vacuum,
and pours it out of the terminals of the generator, filling space
surrounding those conductors of the attached external power line.
It is a
truly mindboggling EM energy flow, trillions of times larger than
what we
account after Lorentz taught us to disregard almost all of it.
Only the tiny little bit of that EM energy flow in space along and
surrounding the conductors  the little "boundary layer"
that skims down
the surface of the conductors  will strike the surface charges in
the
conductors and get diverged into them to potentialize the Drude
electrons
and "power the power line and its circuits and loads".
All the rest of the
giant EM energy flow in space surrounding the conductors, and
generally
parallel to them, misses that power line entirely and is just wasted.
Check the original papers by Poynting and by Heaviside, who
independently
discovered the flow of EM energy through space (as if continually
observed!)
in the 1880s, after Maxwell was already dead. I can
furnish the citations
required. From the beginning, Poynting only considered that
component of
the energy flow that actually enters the circuit. He considered
only the
"boundary layer" right on the conductor surfaces, so to
speak.
Heaviside considered that component that enters the circuit, and also
uncovered and recognized the gigantic component in the surrounding
space
that does not enter the circuit, but just misses it entirely and is
wasted.
But Heaviside had absolutely no explanation for the enormous and
startling
magnitude of this energy flow that "misses and is wasted".
[You can see an
elementary illustration of the "point intensity" of
this Heaviside
nondiverged flow component in John D. Kraus, Electromagnetics,
Fourth Edn.,
McGrawHill, New York, 1992. Kraus's figure 1260, a and
b, p. 578 shows a
good drawing of the huge EM energy flow filling all space around the
conductors, with almost all of it not intercepted and thus not
diverged into
the circuit to power it, but just "wasted." Kraus's
numbers on the contours
represent the amount of power (watts per sq meter) a single unit point
static charge will collect at any point in space on that contour.
If we put
100 unit point charges at that same point in space on that same
contour, we
will diverge and collect 100 times as much power as the Kraus contour
number. And you can collect and augment the collection in that
manner from
every point in space around that transmission line.].
So Heaviside spoke cautiously of the angles and relative directions of
the
flow components; he did not wish to be scientifically destroyed for
pointing
out such an inexplicably large EM energy flow, far larger than the
known
input energy to the generator. There was then no such thing yet
discovered
as the electron, the atom, the nucleus, special relativity, general
relativity, quantum mechanics, the active vacuum, etc. Poynting
never even
thought of the "nondiverged component that misses the
circuit" or
considered it.
Lorentz, however, understood the extra Heaviside component and its
vast
magnitude, but he also could not explain it in any fashion. Even
the great
Lorentz could not risk publishing or advocating such an enormous
energy
flow, lest he be called a "perpetual motion nut" and
destroyed. So he
reasoned that, since that stupendous nondiverged energy flow component
missed the circuit and powered nothing, it had "no physical
significance"
(his words).
Jackson in his famous 1975 "Classical Electrodynamics", 2nd
edition, uses
essentially the same phrase as did Lorentz. And so do almost all
other
electrodynamicists.
So Lorentz originated a little trick of integrating the energy flow
vector
itself around a closed surface surrounding any volume element of
interest.
Obviously that zeros all nondiverging EM energy flows  including
precisely
that inexplicable and enormous Heaviside "dark energy"
component. The
integration trick does retain that small diverged Poynting component
that
enters the circuit. Also, our instruments measure energy
dissipation from
the circuit, and the energy has to enter the circuit to be dissipated
from
it. So our instruments and their measurements will indeed agree
with the
Poynting energy flow component. Lorentz in the 1880s thus
arbitrarily
discarded accountability of trillions of times as much EM energy flow
as was
retained and accounted.
In a later book by Lorentz, one can see that little trick that is
still used
by electrodynamicists. The reference is: H.A. Lorentz,
Vorlesungen über
Theoretische Physik an der Universität Leiden, Vol. V, Die
Maxwellsche
Theorie (19001902), Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H., Leipzig,
1931,
"Die Energie im elektromagnetischen Feld," p. 179186.
Figure 25 on p. 185.
The Lorentz trick does not cancel the actual flow of the Heaviside
dark
energy component around every circuit! It just drops it from any
accountability.
Indeed, we do precisely a similar thing for the "field" and
the "potential".
There is not a single text in the U.S. that calculates the magnitude
of the
field itself, prior to point interaction. Instead, we are taught
to
calculate the reaction of that field at a point in it, with a unit
point
static charge at that point. In short, we calculate what is
actually
diverged from the field or potential by that little point static unit
charge, and call it "the magnitude of the field". At
best, it is indicative
of the field intensity at a point, because we have prescribed the
magnitude
of the static point charge's reaction cross section with the field,
not the
overall magnitude of the entire field itself. Another major non
sequitur!
By identifying the "field" as "that which is diverged
from it", we gravely
err. We do the same for the potential, again using its reaction
cross
section for a unit point charge at a point in the potential.
There is not a living electrodynamicist, it seems, who has ever
calculated
the magnitude of the field itself, or of the potential itself!
They
calculate the respective reaction cross sections (and the static
reaction
cross section at that!) and erroneously call that the "magnitude
of the
field". It is no such thing. No thing filling all
space is identical to
one point in itself, else we discard all logic.
Well, now we can return to our source dipole and its extraction of an
enormous energy flow from the vacuum, once we account for the
longneglected
(for more than a century) Heaviside dark (nondiverged, unaccounted)
energy
flow component. That is the essence of my paper, "Giant
Negentropy from the
Common Dipole", Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p.
1123. [Also
on DoE open website and my own website www.cheniere.org.].
The easiest thing in all the world to do, is to extract enormous
usable EM
energy flow from the vacuum, from the time domain. Every circuit
and every
electrical power system already does it, and every electrical power
system
is powered by vacuum energy, not by burning all that coal and oil etc.
None
of that does anything to actually power the circuit. It only
makes dipoles.
If you will check the characteristics of the ubiquitous closed current
loop
circuit, you will discover a diabolical thing: That closed
current loop
circuit forces all the spent (depotentialized) electrons from the
ground
return line back through the source dipole (the back emf). It is
easily
shown that precisely half the energy collected in the circuit from
that
feeble Poynting energy flow component, is then used to perform work on
those
dipole charges and scatter them, thereby destroying the source dipole
and
abruptly shutting off all energy extraction from the vacuum. The
other half
of the collected Poynting energy is dissipated in the external loads
and
losses. That means that half the collected Poynting energy is
used to kill
the source dipole, and less than half is used to power the loads.
Well, we must input at least as much energy (assuming a 100% efficient
generator with no losses) to the shaft of the generator to restore the
dipole, as was used to destroy it. This means we shall always
have to input
more energy to the generator shaft, than we get dissipated in the
loads.
That is precisely what is responsible for our ubiquitous COP<1.0
systems,
where COP is Coefficient of Performance, and is load power output in
the
external circuit divided by shaft horsepower input to the generator.
COP<1.0 comes from (1) the ubiquitous usage of the closed current
loop
circuit, and (2) the prevailing notion that electrical power systems
far
from equilibrium in their energetic exchange with the active vacuum
are
impossible to build. In fact every electrical power system is
already just
such a system. As is wellknown in the thermodynamics of open
systems far
from equilibrium with their active environment (in this case, the
active
vacuum), such systems are permitted to: (1) selforganize, (2)
selfoscillate or selfrotate, (3) output more energy than the
operator
himself must input to the system (the excess energy is freely received
from
the active environment, in this case the active vacuum), (4) power
itself
and its loads simultaneously (all the energy is freely received from
the
active environment, in this case the active vacuum), and (5) exhibit
negentropy.
But by designing all our systems so that they use more of their
collected
energy to kill their source dipoles than they use to power their
loads, we
have foolishly wasted the planets resources, vastly overcharged the
consumer, artificially created a great energy crisis, fomented wars
for
precious oil and other energy resources, and polluted the planet and
strangled species.
In short, we pay the power company to have a giant wrestling match
inside
their generators and lose! And we pay our electrical engineers
to keep
designing and building such asinine systems!
And this sad state of affairs is what is now upon us as a great and
increasing energy crisis, polluting and destroying the biosphere, etc.
and
threatening to eventually collapse the world economy.
It is astounding that, since the basis for the above has been in
physics for
nearly a century (Whittaker decomposition) and for nearly a half
century
(broken 3symmetry of the source dipole, as well as the active
vacuum), the
hoary old classical EM model has not been updated to incorporate what
has
already been proven in particle physics. Such is inexplicable and
unconscionable.
It is also astounding that no electrical engineer realizes that energy
extracted from the vacuum powers every electrical power system, and
few if
any professors are aware of it either.
So this is where your cogent realization of the terrible non sequitur
in
that atrocious "wave in 3space" standard diagram leads.
Working with the AIAS (Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced
Study)
advanced theorists, there is now a series of papers in the hard
literature
pointing out the feasibility of extracting EM energy from the vacuum.
In
addition to that paper previously quoted, I would also refer you to
M.W.
Evans, P.K. Anastasovski, T.E. Bearden et al., "Classical
Electrodynamics
without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the
Vacuum," Physica
Scripta, 61(5), May 2000, p. 513517;  "Runaway Solutions
of the
Lehnert Equations: The Possibility of Extracting Energy from the
Vacuum,"
Optik, 111(9), 2000, p. 407409. About 20 other AIAS papers
along such
lines or related, have been submitted to the various journals and are
in the
referee process.
I just wanted to contact you informally and, for your personal
information,
show you how perceptive and correct your objection to that atrocious
diagram
is. You have lifted the corner of the veil of electrodynamics
confusion
between effect and cause, with effect being widely used as the cause.
The
entire notion of a "separate force" acting on a
"separate mass" in mechanics
is also a non sequitur. If we define force as F => d/dt(mv),
where the =>
symbol means "is identically", then we see that mass is a
component of
force! So here is another major and uncorrected non sequitur.
And this one
was also largely responsible for the dichotomy of the field, where the
"same
field" is used in both a force (mass containing) manner and a
forcefree
(without mass) manner, as if the two were the same!
I very much enjoyed your editorial, and would urge you to publish
additional
material along that same vein. You are striking at the very
heart of the
problem, and every bit of insight and change in those terrible non
sequiturs
will result in enormous progress in electrodynamics and physics.
Sincerely,
Tom Bearden, Ph.D.
Lt. Col., U.S. Army (Retired)
Director, Association of Distinguished American Scientists
Fellow Emeritus, Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced Study
2311 Big Cove Road
Huntsville, AL 35801
