The Tom Bearden

Help support the research

Date: Mon, 3 Mar 2003 21:54:20 -0600

Dear Ivan,

Please forgive my long delay in answering; somehow this E-mail got misplaced on my computer.  I apologize for my unseemly delay.

Thank you for sending the article on Kalisky's work.  Very interesting, and I appreciate it.

Let me also call your attention to the hierarchies of symmetry work by Michael Leyton, in his book, A Generative Theory of Shape, Springer, 2001. He has done some original group-theoretic work, which adds a startling thing:  When symmetry is broken at a given level, it generates a new symmetry at the next higher level, with a layer overlaying all that lies beneath it.

I think Leyton may have solved two very formidable problems of long standing: (1) the asymmetry of thermodynamics (If there can only be progressive entropy, then how was entropy ever so low in the first place?, and (2) the hierarchy problem so perplexing to particle physicists and significantly driving particle physics work for quite some time.

The discovery of broken symmetry and its proof in 1957, led to a great revolution in physics.

In my opinion, Leyton's work is the next such great revolution, in physics, thermodynamics, electrodynamics, chemistry, and so on.

His work is already being effectively incorporated in robotics, pattern recognition, and several other fields.  I applied the Leyton effect to my solution of the source charge problem, and it generated perfectly all the hierarchies of symmetries and broken symmetries required.

In my view, he has also shown how negentropy arises, gathering in self-ordering (Prigogine) etc.  Quite simply, when one reaches maximum entropy (as in the virtual photon flux of the vacuum in its interaction with a charge), maximum entropy is a special kind of symmetry. Breaking it, with an asymmetry in that flux exchange between vacuum and charge, generates the next higher symmetry and ordering, right on the source charge --- the continuous production of ordered potential and field (external parameters) on that charge, which is the continuous production of negative entropy, in consonance with the startling theoretical work of Evans and Rondoni recently.  In turn, that symmetry has a broken symmetry (emission) so that continuous observable photons are emitted in all directions.  But that broken symmetry then generates a symmetry at the next higher level --- the macroscopic fields and potentials --- so that they are ordered and deterministic, and we calculate them exactly that way.  Then in turn there is a broken symmetry at that level, which means that we can dissipate the fields and potentials and their energy to do useful macroscopic work.

So he has solidly established determinism rising out of randomness, and the production of negative entropy at various levels.

Incidentally, there is an error in the present thermodynamics with respect to the statement of the first law and its assumptions.  Thermodynamics completely misdefines work, by bluntly assuming that a change of external parameter (such as field and potential in electrodynamics) is work, a priori.  That is false. It is the erroneous defining of work as change of energy.  Actually work is the change of FORM of energy, not change of energy per se.   If the input energy to the parameter-changing process has to be changed in form in order to change the magnitude of the external parameter, then work is indeed done.  But if the energy is input in the same form, then no work is done at all, even though the external parameter changes in magnitude.

So eerily, present thermodynamics confuses work and energy (they are NOT the same), and it excludes gauge freedom --- one of the most important things in all of physics!

The Second Law of course also has to be changed, because presently it is an oxymoron implicitly that its own contradiction has first occurred.

I hope to  finish this work in about two more months.

Very best wishes,

Tom Bearden