The Tom Bearden

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Date: Mon, 24 Feb 2003 23:44:20 -0600

Dear Art,


We continue to make slow progress on the motionless electromagnetic generator, and believe we are also making some progress on obtaining the necessary funding to get on with it much faster.  Presently of course, we do not have a large generator capable of powering homes etc., but only a small series of successful laboratory experiments.  The generator also is highly nonlinear, and involves several areas of unusual physics such as geometric phase, nonlinear oscillation theory, and nonlinear control theory.  For adequate modeling, one's electrodynamics also has to model the interaction of the local active vacuum, since all EM energy, fields, and potentials come from the vacuum via the asymmetry of the source charge(s) in their vacuum exchange.  So one cannot use standard electrical engineering to model it; instead, one has to use a higher group symmetry electrodynamics such as in quaternion algebra or in O(3) electrodynamics, etc.


Due to personnel limitations, we are proceeding slowly until we succeed in obtaining a major financial partner, so that a proper major laboratory staffed with the required specialists and specialized instruments in those physics areas can be set up.  We continue to be confident we will obtain the necessary funding, and that we will eventually succeed in developing a commercial size MEG and getting it onto the market.


Noticing the purpose of your alternative energy meeting in April, may I also call your attention to the work of Alexey Nikulov and also the work of D. J. Evans et al. (some references are at the end, for your convenience).  The second law of thermodynamics (which is an oxymoron that has always assumed its own contradiction has first occurred) is falling, due to very heavy onslaught both theoretically and experimentally by groups of scientists worldwide.  More on that later.


For rigorous experimental proof that one can extract free electrical energy from Brownian motion, simply do a Google search on Nikulov and "quantum power source" and download a pdf file of Nikulov's paper by that subject, "Quantum Power Source".  It has been experimentally proven that an asymmetric little nano loop of wire immersed in Brownian motion sets up a steady DC voltage and DC current on one part of the loop, powering the other part as a "load".  About 10exp(-8) watts are produced by one such asymmetric nano loop.  Some 10exp8 loops can --- it appears by present nanotechnology --- be incorporated on a 1 cm square surface, to provide 1 watt of power.  By then "layering" or stacking a hundred such surfaces, one will get a 100 watt power supply that is self contained and never ceases furnishing power.  A thousand of the surfaces will yield a kilowatt of free electrical power.  If the technology, tooling, techniques etc. can be sufficiently developed so that the costs fall sufficiently,  then we shall see such power supplies directly extracting EM energy from the vacuum in the future.


Thermodynamics is also headed for an eventual massive overhaul, once the implications of Michael Leyton's hierarchies of symmetry work starts being incorporated.  Leyton's seminal work seems to perfectly explain, e.g., the totally negentropic behavior of that asymmetric loop immersed in Brownian motion.  Note that a symmetrical loop immersed in the same Brownian motion will not do it, but will obey the Second Law.


D. J. Evans and Wang et al. have experimentally shown that the Second Law can be violated at the micron level and for up to two seconds.  A cubic micron of water has some 30 billion ions and molecules in it.  A region of fluid containing 30 billion ions and molecules, in which interactions can and do run backwards, is a very significant effect, and has significant implications for chemistry, e.g.  In an earlier paper and in my book, Energy from the Vacuum: Concepts and Principles, Cheniere Press, Santa Barbara, CA, 2002, available from my website, I used just such little "reversal zones" to explain the mechanism for cold fusion, or more appropriately, nuclear interactions at low energy.  In such a little reversal zone, the normal law of attraction and repulsion of charges is temporarily reversed.  Momentarily like charges attract and unlike charges repel — and the so-called "Coulomb barrier" for like charges becomes the "Coulomb attractor" for them  In that case, e.g., two D+ ions can and will attract so closely together that each enters the strong force region of the other, so the two become a quasi-nucleus of He4.  As the little reversal region decays back to normal, the strong force simply tightens the nucleus, resulting in an alpha particle.  This is a perfectly legitimate nuclear transformation at low energy, due to the reversal of the second law of thermodynamics and the reversal of the Coulomb barrier.  We also worked out a couple other specific nuclear reactions that are found in a great number of the successful cold fusion experiments.  Indeed, nuclear chemistry will eventually have to be dramatically expanded because of the large and growing number of successful cold fusion experiments worldwide, and because of the known violations of the Second Law of thermodynamics, particularly as shown by Wang, Evans et al. in 2002.


My own work on the source charge problem shows that the source charge and its associated EM fields and potentials also violate the Second Law for any macroscopic size level desired, and for any time duration desired.  The source charge consumes positive entropy in the virtual state (absorbs virtual photons) to produce negative entropy at the next higher (observable) level; i.e., the increasing, continuous potentialization of the source charge. In turn, that newer and higher level symmetry has a broken symmetry, so that the charge emits the influx of potential as observable photons, in all directions, forming and continuously replenishing the associated EM fields and potentials spreading at light speed across the universe. 


The emission is dissipative and deterministic, so that the external fields and potentials are deterministic as a function of radial distance (and time of appearance).  With the fields being deterministic formed by dissipative dynamics, then the startling negative entropy theoretically shown possible by Evans and Rondoni applies.  It is believed that the source charge and its fields and potentials comprise the first such physical system proposed and capable of being shown experimentally.


The present Maxwell-Heaviside electrodynamics (and electrical engineering) implicitly assumes that every EM field, EM potential, and joule of EM energy in the universe is freely created out of nothing at all.  This terrible "source charge problem" has been hidden from the students for decades, so long that even most of the electrical engineering professors are not aware of it.  It has no solution in the Maxwell-Heaviside classical electrodynamics, because that model assumes an inert empty vacuum --- and the input energy to the source charge is in virtual photon form, from the vacuum exchange with the charge and the charge's asymmetry in that exchange.


The present statement of the First Law of thermodynamics also contains a false statement.  In thermodynamics, the mere change of the magnitude of an external parameter (such as a field or a potential) of a system is a priori defined as work, which is a false statement.  Rigorously work is not the change of magnitude of the energy, but the change of FORM of the energy.  Free change of a system's potential energy magnitude, without any work at all, is guaranteed by the standard gauge freedom principle of quantum field theory (our most modern theory, widely applied throughout physics).  So in the first law statement, if the energy is input to the system in different form than the potential energy whose magnitude is to be changed, then work is indeed done on the system.  But if the energy is input in the same energy form, then no work at all is required.


This of course does not change the conservation of energy law; it just changes the standard thermodynamics assumption that a change in magnitude of an external parameter of the system automatically is work.  That is not true, and never has been.  Else we must totally discard gauge freedom, quantum field theory, gauge field theory, and Lorentz's symmetrical regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations so that one can get closed algebraic solutions rather than having to always use numerical methods. In short, that assumption in thermodynamics already is falsified by every electrodynamics and every electrodynamics textbook.


I add some references which you may wish to check or have checked.


Unfortunately I am physically handicapped and unable to travel, so it is impossible for me to any longer attend symposia and conferences unless they are local.  I cannot stand very long or walk very far, and will not be recovering past the point I've already recovered to.


Very best wishes on your conference/meeting in April, and I hope you find some of the above information of interest to you with respect to it.


Best wishes,

Tom Bearden



1.  Alexey Nikulov, "Quantum Power Source", .  References in the paper are also much of interest.

  1. D. J. Evans and D. J. Searles, "Equilibrium microstates which generate second law violating steady states," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 50, 1994, p. 1645-1648
  2. D. J. Searles and D. J. Evans, "The fluctuation theorem for stochastic systems," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 60, 1999, p. 159-164; — "The fluctuation theorem and Green-Kubo relations," J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 112, 2000, p. 9727-9735; — "Ensemble dependence of the transient fluctuation theorem," J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 113, 2000, p. 3503-3509.
  3. D. J. Evans, D. J. Searles, and E. Mittag, "Fluctuation theorem for Hamiltonian systems: Le Chatelier's principle, Phys. Rev. E., Vol. 63, 2001, 051105/1-4.
  4. D. J. Evans, E. G. D. Cohen, and G. P. Morriss, "Probability of second law violations in Nonequilibrium steady states," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 71, 1993, p. 2401-2404; "Erratum", ibid., Vol. 71, 1993, p. 3616.
  5. Gavin E. Crooks, "Entropy production fluctuation theorem and the nonequilibrium work relation for free energy differences," Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 60, 1999, p. 2721-2726.
  6. G. M. Wang, E. M. Sevick, Emil Mittag, Debra J. Searles, and Denis J. Evans, "Experimental Demonstration of Violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics for Small Systems and Short Time Scales," Phys. Rev. Lett., 89(5), 29 July 2002, 050601, p. 1-4 (VERIFY). Experimentally demonstrates the integrated transient fluctuation theorem, which predicts appreciable and measurable violations of the second law of thermodynamics for small systems over short time scales. Entropy consumption is shown to occur over colloidal length and time scales, for up to two seconds and at micron size scales.
  7. D. J. Evans and Lamberto Rondoni, "Comments on the Entropy of Nonequilibrium Steady States," J. Stat. Phys., 109(3-4), Nov. 2002, p. 895-920.  Note: Evans and Rondoni theoretically showed the case of the Gibbs entropy being negative, and decreasing further toward negative infinity as time passes.  They knew of no example system, and so felt that a real physical system could not exhibit such a startling negative entropy, although they pointed out that, for deterministic dissipative systems, the "problem persists."  Actually the source charge and its associated EM fields and potentials is a physical system demonstrating just such negative entropy, and particle physics plus the Leyton hierarchies of symmetry does explain why it can and does happen.  This of course is a complete violation of the present statement of the Second Law, which I have corrected and restated to be consistent with experiment and with the source charge and its fields and potentials.
  8. Michael Leyton, A Generative Theory of Shape, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001.  Contains the full mathematical theory of hierarchies of symmetry. It invents a new group-theoretic approach to symmetry-breaking, that is the opposite of the conventional approach.  In the conventional approach, symmetry-breaking causes a reduction in symmetry group.  In the new approach, it causes the creation of a larger symmetry group with an extra layer that NESTS the preceding group.
  9. M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "The Aharonov-Bohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic Energy Inherent in the Vacuum," Found. Phys. Lett., 15(6), Dec. 2002, p. 561-568.
  10. M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with O(3) Electrodynamics," Found. Phys. Lett., 14(1), Feb. 2001, p. 87-94; — "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator by Sachs's Theory of Electrodynamics," Found. Phys. Lett., 14(4), 2001, p. 387-393.
  11. M. W. Evans, T. E. Bearden, and A. Labounsky, "The Most General Form of the Vector Potential in Electrodynamics," Found. Phys. Lett., 15(3), June 2002, p. 245-261.  Abstract: The most general form of the vector potential is deduced in curved spacetime using general relativity. It is shown that the longitudinal and timelike components of the vector potential exist in general and are richly structured. Electromagnetic energy from the vacuum is given by the quaternion-valued canonical energy-momentum. It is argued that a dipole intercepts such energy and uses it for the generation of electromotive force. Whittaker's U(1) decomposition of the scalar potential applied to the potential between the poles of a dipole, shows that the dipole continuously receives electromagnetic energy from the complex plane and emits it in real space. The known broken 3-symmetry of the dipole results in a relaxation from 3-flow symmetry to 4-flow symmetry. Considered with its clustering virtual charges of opposite sign, an isolated charge becomes a set of composite dipoles, each having a potential between its poles that, in U(1) electrodynamics, is composed of the Whittaker structure and dynamics. Thus the source charge continuously emits energy in all directions in 3-space while obeying 4-space energy conservation. This resolves the long vexing problem of the association of the source charge and its fields and potentials. In initiating 4-flow symmetry while breaking 3-flow symmetry, the charge—as a set of dipoles—initiates a reordering of a fraction of the surrounding vacuum energy, with the reordering spreading in all directions at the speed of light and involving canonical determinism between time currents and spacial energy currents. This constitutes a giant, spreading negentropy which continues as long as the dipole (or charge) is intact. Some implications of this previously unsuspected giant negentropy are pointed out for the Poynting energy flow theory, and as to how electrical circuits and loads are powered.
  12. M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "Operator Derivation of the Gauge Invariant Proca and Lehnert Equations:  Elimination of the Lorenz Condition," Found. Phys., 30(7), July 2000, p. 1123-1129.
  13. M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "Runaway Solutions of the Lehnert Equations: the Possibility of Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Optik, 111(9), 2000, p. 407-409.
  14. M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "Classical Electrodynamics Without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Physica Scripta, 61(5), May 2000, p. 513-517.