-- Quantum Mechanics Compounds the Problem --

           In addition, the two presently recognized observation states -- observable and nonobservable (virtual) -- were of course unknown to the early geometers and electricians, and these ideas were not incorporated directly into the theoretical foundation. 
          From particle physics and quantum mechanics, we now understand that physical reality is structured of an observable state, underlaid with an infinite number of ever finer, successive levels of virtual (unobservable) states.  At least reality is most accurately modeled in that fashion, according to particle physics today. 
           It is also well known, for example, that at the most fundamental level, one cannot actually separate nonmotion from motion (which implies, for example, that one cannot separate mass and velocity).  In other words, a "mass in motion" idea is actually incorrect, at the most basic level.  What actually exists is a sort of "smeared mass".  That is, "mass-motion" is fundamentally what exists, not mass IN motion . 
          Actually, all that the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle implies is this fact:  If one examines the concept of "static (non-smeared) thing in non-static (smeared) motion", in ever finer detail, one reaches a degree of fineness where the "smearing" is paramount and one cannot have an un-smeared or "separate static thing" to be in motion.  Instead, one only has the smeared, 4-dimensional spacetime entity, without 3-dimensional spatial separations. 
          This means, for example, that at the most basic level, it is actually incorrect to represent a momentum with a little static particle of mass connected to a spatial velocity vector.  It is incorrect to think of the system as comprised of TWO SEPARATE ENTITIES, (1) a mass, and (2) a massless spatial system velocity vector (a geometer's vector). 
          We mention in passing that, presently, we understand that every particle is continually accelerating.  First, the particle has spin, which involves rotation, which means that every "part" of the periphery of the particle is accelerated toward the center axis of spin.  Second, every particle is continuously "fluctuating," and these fluctuations are accelerations.  Further, we must consider any change such as an acceleration -- as existing in a small time increment, and occurring in a small length increment.  Thus mass particles actually exist as (mass x acceleration x time x length).  This of course has the dimensions of ACTION or angular momentum.  The "real" world of physical matter, then, is composed of building blocks of action, called "quanta."  Any other physical "quantity" must be obtained by fissioning (differentiating) the action quantum.  For this reason, quantum mechanics presently must postulate that to every observable there corresponds an operator.

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