• The electric charge of a charged particle is due to a
    violent exchange of virtual photons between the
    charged particle and the local vacuum VPF
    - photons continually absorbed from the vacuum
    - photons continually radiated back to the vacuum
    - this exchange flux is what electric charge IS.

  • In the nucleus, everything is changing into everything,
    so to speak.  It is a furious, VPF-driven cauldron.

  • the nucleus is an open, driven system, normally in
    equilibrium with respect to VPF input and output.

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