The Tom Bearden


Anti-Stokes Emission Always Outputs More Energy than the Operator Inputs

Anti-Stokes emission, e.g., has been verified overunity (the medium outputs more energy than the operator inputs) for more than 50 years. In most (but not all) cases, at the time a photon is absorbed by a molecule in this effect, a collision with one or more other molecules adds extra energy to the absorbing molecule. Consequently the absorbing molecule receives excess energy over and above what it received from absorbing the photon, and enters a higher excited state than it would have entered from the absorption alone. That means that the molecule has collected additional excess energy in its "superexcited" state. The molecule is then free to decay from this superexcited state and emit a more energetic photon than it originally absorbed.

This does indeed happen and is quite rigorously proven.

However, usually in such a medium there are other Stokes emission processes ongoing, where a molecule absorbing a photon from its environment or input, simultaneously has its own kinetic energy reduced by collisions, and so it gives up energy as it absorbs energy. Hence it may enter an excited state less than it would have entered from absorbing the photon alone. Therefore this "subexcited" energy state can subsequently decay to emit a photon less energetic than the one it absorbed.

So on the average, the entire system most often does not produce net overunity, even though certain reactions in that system continually do. However, since the molecules in the system are serving as (1) energy collectors and (2) energy emission gates, the situation where anti-Stokes emission is occurring is ripe for including an additional process for the receipt of excess energy freely from the external environment, other than just in one part of the medium from another part.

One should also examine meticulously those processes where the "inner energy of the molecule" is said to be furnishing the excess energy in anti-Stokes emission, but no changes are occurring in the molecules — in other words, those cases where the excess energy taken from the inner parts of the molecule is continually replenished freely.

Note that the energy balance in the "net underunity" case — so that net COP remains £ 1.0 — will depend on the medium's molecules not receiving any net additional excess energy from the external environment in free Poynting radiation form, and specifically from ping pong and asymmetrical self-regauging within the medium and between its various molecules. If it does receive the excess energy, then the anti-Stokes emission effect — which is itself a "gating" process for emitting excess energy added to the molecule — can increase and predominate, and the system will develop COP>1.0. This will occur over and above the contributions of the molecular collisions, which may still on the average balance out.

We quote from a book by Dake and DeMent:

"In 1935, Prileshajewa showed that there is an energy difference as much as 1.1 v between the exciting light and the fluorescence of aniline vapor. This added energy is attributed to additions from the internal energy of the molecule. The excess energy in the emission is thought to arise from excess molecular collision energy being added to the absorbing molecule, which then may emit a photon with greater energy than that of the absorbed photon." Presently a small fraction of anti-Stokes emission processes do have or can have such additional Poynting energy made available for extra absorption. That usually occurs by ping pong multiple retroreflection (iterative self-targeting) of the emitted Poynting energy, back and forth between "ping ponging" molecules, particles, etc. to increase the energy collection and thereby asymmetrically self-regauge. Such asymmetrical self-regauging is a process whereby excess energy is actually lifted from the vacuum due to the additional local curvature of spacetime engendered by the regauging.

However, you will not find that geometrical regauging reaction presently pointed out in the literature. Instead, conventional scientists avoid the issue by only describing and analyzing the anti-Stokes emission processes where the overall system remains in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is not converted into an open dissipative system. Therefore on the whole the system does not freely receive excess energy from the environment — at least in the usual restricted modeling.

But in many cases, an adroit inventor may uncover ways to convert certain kinds of anti-Stokes emission systems to net overunity operation, by introducing the asymmetrical self-regauging operation. The basic requirements are:

  1. net broken equilibrium in the interaction of the system with the active vacuum,
  2. receipt and collection of net excess energy from the active environment. Note that the "active environment" includes (i) the active vacuum, (ii) the usually discarded, usually nondiverged huge component of Poynting energy flow adjacent to the circuit but not intercepted by it, (iii) any other source of significant Poynting energy flow from sources (preferably free sources) external to the system, and (iv) any asymmetrical self-regauging via ping-pong, where the same energy is "used" repeatedly and recycled in between uses.
Processes and Devices Utilizing Such Asymmetrical Self-Regauging

Patterson's patented process utilizes ping pong also, as we pointed out at the New Energy Symposium in Denver, and if desired can be considered a special case of anti-Stokes emission where local equilibrium of the system is broken, and where self-regauging and excess extraction of energy from the vacuum does occur. A Patterson system is therefore a legitimate open dissipative system, once the conditions necessary for asymmetrical self-regauging are established.

In his best unit, palladium-clad plastic microspheres also absorbed hydrogen ions from the fluid, thereby becoming charged capacitors and source dipoles. Any such dipole steadily radiates Poynting energy extracted from the vacuum, if we apply particle physics and treat the charges as broken symmetries in the fierce energy exchange between charges and vacuum.

Hence as they absorb positive charges, the palladium-clad microspheres become Poynting energy flow generators, adding a component of excess energy (extracted directly from the vacuum) into the system. The system does not violate the conservation of energy law, by outputting more energy than the operator inputs, because the system does receive and output excess energy from the vacuum environment.  His best machine is reported to have produced a demonstrated COP = 1200. Patterson holds several patents on the devices and processes.

In a Patterson system, the self-regauging and ping pong are evidenced by (1) the lengthy time required to "grow" the output to the maximum stable operation zone, and (2) the lengthy time required for the output to gradually decay away after the electrical power cord is disconnected.

Another particularly interesting application of asymmetrical self-regauging is given by lasing without population inversion, specifically as set forth by Letokhov, Lawandy, and others. Letokhov, e.g., for three decades has called this process and similar processes "negative absorption by the medium." Apparently he had to use such a tortuous term in his papers, to prevent stating "excess emission by the medium," which is actually what happens. Use of the more appropriate term would have led to rejection by referees, who would have reacted as if it were "perpetual motion."

Even the arch critics who scream "perpetual motion!" begrudgingly allow what they euphemistically call the "false perpetual motion machine" — which by their "definitions" is simply an open dissipative system freely receiving and using excess energy from the environment.

Lawandy et al. have shown a particularly simple and beautiful bench-top experiment which can be performed in any university optics laboratory for a very nominal sum (perhaps twenty dollars). (see the Nature article by Lawandy et al.) The only tricky part is to filter TiO2 particles through a screen and size them so that their stimulated resonance frequency matches the frequency of the optical laser utilized in the experiment. Further, the experiment works every time. Lawandy has filed several very fundamental patents on embodiments and examples of such processes, without ever using the term "asymmetrical self-regauging".

  1. James A. Patterson, "System for Electrolysis of Liquid Electrolyte," U.S. Patent No. 5,372,688, Dec. 13, 1994; —¾ "Method for Electrolysis of Water to Form Metal Hydride," U.S. Patent No. 5,318,675, June 7, 1994; —¾ "Metal Plated Microsphere Catalyst," U.S. Patent No. 5,036,031, July 30, 1991; —¾ "Improved Process for Producing Uniformly Plated Microspheres," U.S. Patent No. 4,943,355, July 24, 1990; —¾ and Dennis Cravens, "System for Electrolysis," U.S. Patent No. 5,607,563, March 4, 1997.
  2. V. S. Letokhov, "Laser Maxwell's demon," Contemporary Physics, 36(4), 1995, p. 235-243; —¾ "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Soviet Physics JETP, 26(4), Apr. 1968, p. 835-839; —¾ "Double g - and optical resonance," Physics Letters A, Vol. 43, 1973, p. 179-180; —¾ "Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption," ZhETF Plasma, 5(8), Apr. 15, 1967, p. 262-265. See also R. Pappalardo and A. Lempicki, "Brillouin and Rayleigh Scattering in Aprotic Laser Solutions Containing Neodymium," Journal of Applied Physics, Apr. 1992, p. 1699-1708.
  3. Craig F. Bohren, "How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?", American Journal of Physics, 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 323-327. In the same issue, see independent confirmation of Bohren's work by H. Paul and R. Fischer, "Comment on 'How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?'," American Journal of Physics, 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 327.
  4. M. E. Carrera-Patino and R. S. Berry, Physical Review A, Vol. 34, 1986, p. 4728. The effect of laser-induced drift of atoms can be considered a realization of Maxwell’s demon. In all such cases, the manipulation of atoms by means of laser light reduces the entropy of gas particles by an amount much less than the expenditure of the energy of laser photons. In short, this is a proven process for COP>1.0.
  5. For a good lay article of Lawandy's experiment complete with color pictures, see Ivars Peterson, "Boosted light: Laser action in white paint," Science News, 145(15), Apr. 9, 1994, p. 228-229.
  6. Nabil M. Lawandy, "Optical Gain Medium Having Doped Nanocrystals of Semiconductors and Also Optical Scatterers," U.S. Patent No. 5,434,878, July 18, 1995. See particularly Nabil M. Lawandy, M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature, 368(6470), Mar. 31, 1994, p. 436-438. Lawandy also has three earlier patents, and a copending patent application (probably now issued) serial No. 08/210,710, filed Mar. 19, 1994 entitled "Optical Sources Having a Strongly Scattering Gain Medium Providing Laser-like Action."
  7. Nabil M. Lawandy, "Intensity dependence of the seeded preparation of germanosilicate fibers for second harmonic generation: evidence for a light induced delocalization transition," Physical Review Letters, 65(14), Sept. 1990, p. 1745-TBD. See also P. Mandel, "Lasing without inversion: A useful concept?" Contemporary Physics, Vol. 34, 1993, p. 235; O. Kocharovskaya, "Amplification and lasing without inversion," Physics Reports, Vol. 219, 1992, p. 175.