At 12:05 AM 12/22/01 -0600, you wrote:Dear Maria,
Merry Christmas and a happy holidays; the greeting was much appreciated.
Thought you might like to read a little something I've sent to several correspondents, and which will be in my forthcoming book, Energy from the Vacuum: Concepts and Principles, World Scientific, 2002. (It will be a little more formally stated). The book should be published about mid-year or a little later.
Tesla stated the EM wave in the vacuum was longitudinal EM waves—and
QFT has long had four polarizations of the photon.
the z axis as
the direction of propagation, and x and y as transverse axes. So there
two transverse polarizations (x and y, respectively) and a longitudinal
polarization (along the z-axis, with the energy density squeezing and
expanding like an accordion, along the line of motion). In addition,
is a fourth polarization in the time domain (in that ict axis),
with the energy moving (like a longitudinal wave but in the t domain) in
is called the time-polarized photon, or just the "scalar" photon, where by
mean it has no vector component in 3-space, and so its
component is "scalar" rather than vectorial.
A negative charge absorbs the scalar photon, transduces the energy into
3-space, and emits the longitudinal photon in 3-space. A positive charge
absorbs the longitudinal photon in 3-space (not individually observable,
our instruments cannot detect it) and emits the scalar photon in the time
domain (again, not individually observable).
— ● —
Below is an explanation of the resolution of the well-known source charge problem (and also the proof of Tesla's famous pronouncement that all space was highly energetic, and that soon we would take our energy freely from space). We make the complete explanation, including the above and extending it a bit. Note that, as Sen put it, "The connection between the field and its source has always been and still is the most difficult problem in classical and quantum electrodynamics." [ D.K. Sen, Fields and/or Particles, Academic Press, London and New York, 1968, p. viii.]. That is the problem for which we proposed a solution, in 2000. The nature of the solution fully validates Tesla's thesis that EM energy could be extracted from space itself.
— ● —
Solution to the Source Charge Problem and
Proof of Tesla's Assertion that EM Energy Can Be Extracted from Space
We make a point on the lab bench the origin of a coordinate system
across the universe. We make the coordinate system x,y,z just for good
measure (doesn't matter which kind of coordinate system we choose).
a line in the x, y, z at random, running radially out from the origin to
end of the universe.
Since we can put another radial with instrument packages on any other
line and get the same results, we have also proven that the source charge
pours out EM energy continuously in
all directions in 3 space.
But also, no corresponding input of EM energy to the charge can be or is
detected in 3-space.
So here we have a nice little experiment.
Since we can put another radial with instrument packages on any other radial line and get the same results, we have also proven that the source charge pours out EM energy continuously in all directions in 3 space.
But also, no corresponding input of EM energy to the charge can be or is detected in 3-space.
So here we have a nice little experiment.We have proven that any charge continuously pours out EM energy in 3-space in all directions, and that it does not receive any input of energy at all in 3-space. Either we must totally surrender the conservation of energy law—because every charge in the universe already violates it continuously, and the charges in the original matter have been doing that for about 14 billion years—or we must have an equal and continuous EM energy input to the source charge from outside 3-space. Experimentally our instruments show and prove that there is no incoming observable (detectable) EM energy to the charge in 3-space. Hence if there is an input of equal energy flow to preserve the conservation of energy law, that input must come from outside 3-space.
Well, if we are modeling in Minkowski space, there is only one additional dimensional axis from which the input EM energy can come. That is from the fourth axis, which is ict, where the only variable in ict is the t. So the energy input has to come from the time domain, else we have clearly falsified the conservation of energy law itself. In short, EM energy must (1) flow into the charge from the time domain, (2) be absorbed in that domain and energetically excite the charge therein, (3) then the absorbed excitation energy in the time domain must be transduced by the charge into 3-space excitation energy, and (4) then that excitation energy now in 3-space must decay by emitting the EM energy from the charge outward in 3-space in all directions.
This is absolutely rigorous.
There is no way around it
I am aware of.
Further, we can find powerful support (some would say proof) of this
proposed solution from two other regimes: (1) particle physics, and (2)
quantum field theory.
In particle physics, the experimental proof of broken symmetry was
demonstrated in early 1957 by Wu et al. Lee and Yang had previously
strongly predicted it
In particle physics, there is also no such thing as an "isolated
charge". Instead, the observable charge is
So any "charge" can be replaced with a set of composite dipoles, where
dipole is comprised of a differential piece of the observable charge and
of the virtual charges of opposite sign, clustering around
One of the broken symmetries—for which Lee and Yang received the
Prize—is the asymmetry of opposite charges (such as are on the
ends of a dipole). We do not have to
Hence the charge continuously pours out energy, unceasingly, in 3-space in
all directions. Further, this energy came from the vacuum (particle
physics) in unobservable form, then was transduced, or from the time
(quantum field theory) then was transduced into observable EM form.
In short, every charge and every dipole is a true negative resistor,
continuously producing giant negentropy by pouring out energy unceasingly,
in all directions.
In particle physics, the experimental proof of broken symmetry was demonstrated in early 1957 by Wu et al. Lee and Yang had previously strongly predicted itand suggested the type of experiment. So unprecedented and profound was this asymmetry discovery, affecting all physics, that forthwith Lee and Yang were awarded the Nobel Prize in the very same year, 1957.
In particle physics, there is also no such thing as an "isolated macroscopic charge". Instead, the observable charge isalso clustered around by virtual charges of opposite sign (that's just quantum electrodynamics). The "observed magnitude of charge" seen through the screening virtual charges and given in the textbooks and handbooks, is not the same as the actual "bare" charge if the screening virtual charges were stripped away. That is well-known in physics; references can easily be cited.
So any "charge" can be replaced with a set of composite dipoles, where each dipole is comprised of a differential piece of the observable charge and one of the virtual charges of opposite sign, clustering aroundthe observable charge at that time.
One of the broken symmetries—for which Lee and Yang received the Nobel Prize—is the asymmetry of opposite charges (such as are on the opposite ends of a dipole). We do not have toreprove that broken symmetry; it has already been experimentally proven and Nobel Prizes awarded. It is well-known and accepted in particle physics. Yet the vacuum's energetic interaction with the charge is not even modeled in the Maxwell-Heaviside-Lorentz classical electrodynamics—much less a broken symmetry in that energy exchange.
Weexamine one of those composite dipoles comprising the "charge". By the very definition of broken symmetry, that dipole is continuously absorbing virtual photon energy from the seething vacuum flux, and changing it into observable photon energy, then emitting (back to vacuum and 3-space) observable photon energy (emitting energy in 3-space). Since all observation and detection are 3-spatial, the lab observer cannot see the virtual input EM energy a priori. He just sees and detects the continuous 3-space output of observable photon energy from that "source charge". Note that there are many composite dipoles comprising that "source charge", and all are doing their broken symmetry conversion of unusable energy to usable energy.
Hence the charge continuously pours out energy, unceasingly, in 3-space in all directions. Further, this energy came from the vacuum (particle physics) in unobservable form, then was transduced, or from the time domain (quantum field theory) then was transduced into observable EM form.
In short, every charge and every dipole is a true negative resistor, continuously producing giant negentropy by pouring out energy unceasingly, in all directions.The charge (and the dipole) are nature's bountiful gift of free electrical energy for us, forever, and very easily and simply produced anywhere in the universe, at any time, without fail.
The symmetry of energy flow in the fourth axis
is broken (some time-energy
goes in and doesn't come back out as such).
The symmetry of energy flow in 3-space is broken (no 3-space energy is
to the charge, but 3-space energy is continuously emitted
The symmetry of energy flow in 3-space is broken (no 3-space energy is input to the charge, but 3-space energy is continuously emittedfrom the charge in all directions at the speed of light.)
In 4-space, however, energy flow is conserved. Note that there is no law of energy conservation that states it must be conserved in 3-space! It must only be conserved in 4-space. Adding 3-space conservation requirement is an additional and totally unnecessary requirement that electrical engineers are trained to ubiquitously "add on" by the way they are trained to build their circuits that self-enforce the extra 3-space energy flow conservation.
We wait one year after we started the little experiment, and the
package that is one light year away from the laboratory origin point (and
the source charge in the experiment) suddenly reads and the reading
So one year after we started, the energy density in an enormous volume of
space a light year in radius (reaching out beyond the solar system) has
altered. And the alteration of the energy density
So one year after we started, the energy density in an enormous volume of space a light year in radius (reaching out beyond the solar system) has been altered. And the alteration of the energy densityin space is still spreading out in all directions at the speed of light, to an ever increasing volume of space. The energy density of space in this region has been altered, and it will remain altered so long as that little charge exists and continues to pour out energy.
Every charge (the most fundamental EM system) in the universe is thus an open system far from 3-equilibrium (and far from t-equilibrium). Instead, it is very happy to maintain a very special kind of 4-symmetry in EM energy flow, and to convert time-energy to spatial energy, and vice versa.
Particle physics already has verified, proven, and accepted that every charge and dipole in the universe (and in every one of our electrical power systemsand EM circuits) already extracts and converts and continuously outputs EM 3-energy from the vacuum.
Since all EM circuits are "powered" by their charges and dipolarity a priori, then every EM circuit ever built and every power systemis already an open EM system far from equilibrium in 3-space and in the t-dimension, but still in perfect equilibrium in EM energy flow in 4-space by converting time into energy. Nature will give us all the EM energy we wish for free, once we pay to make a simple little "dipole" gate. All we have to do is ask her to give us energy, by making that dipole. Then if we will not design systems that viciously destroy that dipole and its free extraction of EM energy from the vacuum, we will have a free gusher of EM energy thereafter. Sadly, all our power engineers are trained to design and build only those type circuits that destroy that source dipole (and thus quench the free flow of EM energy from the vacuum) faster than they power their loads. We pay the power company to deliberately design the power systems and power grid so that they engage in a giant wrestling match inside their generators and lose.
Now refer to Mandl and Shaw, Quantum Field Theory, Wiley, 1984, Chapter 5. Instead of just locking in on the silly transverse wave or transverse photon model, QFT has long had four polarizations of the photon. They use the z axis as the direction of propagation, and x and y as transverse axes. So there are two transverse polarizations (x and y, respectively) and a longitudinal polarization (along the z-axis, with the energy density squeezing and expanding like an accordion, along the line of motion). In addition, there is a fourth polarization in the time domain (in that ict axis). That photon is called the time-polarized photon, or just the "scalar" photon, where by "scalar" they mean it has no vector component in 3-space, and so its 3-space component is "scalar" rather than vectorial.
Mandl and Shaw strongly point out that neither the scalar photon nor the longitudinal photon is individually observable, but the "combination" of the two is observable as the instantaneous scalar potential.
We return to our source charge as a set of composite dipoles. Between the ends of any one of those composite dipoles, there exists a scalar potential.
With respect to photons, this is an instantaneous scalar potential, created by two photons in conjunction: a scalar (time-polarized) photon and a longitudinal photon.
However, Mandl and Shaw do not show the "combining process" nor a cause and effect for the process that does the combining. That's why the source charge problem remained unsolved till we proposed the resolution in 2000. The combining process implicitly assumed by Mandl and Shaw is nothing but the absorption of one of the photons by a ubiquitously assumed unit point charge, and the subsequent emission of the other photon. The absorbed photon is the "cause" or the input energy, the output photon is the "effect" or the output energy, and the total absorption/emission interaction (which involves both cause and effect) is the combining mechanism.
A negative charge absorbs the scalar photon (energy from time) and emits the longitudinal photon (energy into 3-space). (Note that this continually kills increment after increment of "ongoing time", accounting for the sharp separation between future and past). A positive charge absorbs the longitudinal photon in 3-space (not individually observable, so our instruments cannot detect it) and emits the scalar photon in the time domain. Or, we may state that the positive charge absorbs negative time energy and emits negative 3-space longitudinal EM wave energy.
To see how "time is energy", consider the following. Suppose we have some EM energy available in 3-space. Suppose we now compress that energy by the factor c-squared. What can we do with this highly compressed spatial energy?
Suppose we just leave it there in 3-space. In that case, it is known and recognized as "mass". This gives us no problem in our understanding, since Einstein's theory and the dawn of the nuclear age. Every schoolchild now understands that mass is highly compressed spatial energy (by the factor c-squared).
But suppose that, instead of leaving our compressed spatial energy in 3-space, we place it over on the fourth Minkowski axis. The only "place" to place it in ict is in the t. So if we place it there, it is known and recognized as "time".
So time has the same energy density as mass! A little time produces a large amount of spatial energy if decompressed into time-energy again. That is, one second of time energy, when transduced into decompressed spatial energy, produces some 9 x 1016 joules of energy.
Again, Tesla was correct. Enormous EM energy can be easily extracted from space (where we mean "spacetime"), and it is so extracted by every charge in the universe and by every dipole.
To see how using time as energy is rigorous, consider this: In physics, the fundamental units we choose to build our physics model are completely arbitrary. We can in fact build a perfectly valid physics model, using only a single fundamental unit. There is already a system of physics (used by theoreticians active in quantum field theory and particle physics) that does that, and it is used by those physicists all the time (it uses the single fundamental unit as "mass"). For a strong confirmation, see J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, Wiley, 1998, p. 775. As Jackson points out, "In quantum field theory, powers of the coupling constant play the role of the other basic units in doing dimensional analysis."
So suppose we also choose to use a single fundamental unit to make our physics model, and we choose the joule as our unit. In our model, everything else becomes a function of energy. Mass is purely a function of energy—and E = m c-squared does not bother us. But now time also becomes purely a function of energy, just as is mass.
In that way, we can see a complete justification for treating time as energy. As it turns out, time has the same energy density as mass. So every charge and dipole already practice a special form of "nuclear energy" that is just as powerful as the regular nuclear energy—except it is totally clean, and no nuclear reactions are necessary.
Not only was Tesla referring to extraction of EM energy, but he was referring to absolutely clean extraction of the energy, with no nuclear wastes or combustion byproducts to pollute the biosphere.
So let us examine dipole and its ongoing interactions again. What we have going on in 4-space is the input of time-energy (scalar photons) to the negative charge from the time-axis, transduction of that absorbed energy into 3-space (by the 720 degree spin of the negative charge), and re-emission of that excitation energy (now existing in 3-space) out into 3-space in all directions.
At the same time, on the positive end of the dipole we have the input of positive 3-space energy but in longitudinal (unobservable) photon form. The positive 3-space energy is absorbed by the positive charge, transduced into the time domain by the 720 degree spin of the charge, and re-emitted as positive energy in the time domain to "feed" back to the negative charge end of the dipole.
So what is created by a source charge (considered with its clustering virtual charges of opposite sign) is an unusual and continuous circulation of longitudinally-oscillating EM energy, from the time axis to 3-space and back to the time axis. In the AC case, we continually reverse the dipole, so we continually reverse the circulation direction.
That "4-space EM energy circulation" and its intensity is what spreads out in 4-space from that charge. The circulation spreads out AS THE SO-CALLED ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE IN SPACE, once the dipole is formed. The EM wave as it exists in spacetime is nonobservable. Only when we use another charge as the "detector", can we "see" the spreading "EM force field" developed on the charge (and not in space). Since all observation is 3-spatial (observation is a d/dt operator imposed on an ongoing 4-space process, resulting in an instant and frozen single 3-space snapshot), we just "see" that scalar potential across the detecting charge, the gradient in it called the "electric field", the swirl in it called the "magnetic field" , etc.
Anyway, the most fundamental macroscopic EM system of all—a single observable charge—is already an open system far from equilibrium in 3-space, producing a spreading 4-space circulation of energy wherein time is converted to 3-energy and 3-energy is converted back to time. The EM wave is actually and oscillating change of time-energy into 3-energy and vice versa. It is thus an oscillating curvature of spacetime.
Every circuit we ever built, extracts its EM 3-energy from the time-domain and is powered by converted vacuum energy extracted by the source dipole in the generator or battery. We simply 'convert some time' to make EM 3-energy. Generators and batteries do not power their external circuit; instead, they power the continual reconstitution of the dipole, which the closed current loop circuit keeps destroying faster than it powers the load. The dipole, once made, extracts the EM energy from the vacuum (from the time-domain), and that is what produces the Poynting energy pouring forth from the terminals of the battery or generator, with some being intercepted and caught by the surface charges in the external circuit. Half of the "intercepted and collected" 3-energy caught in that external circuit is then used to destroy the source dipole that the generator just made. The other half of the collected energy is used to power the losses in the external circuit and the load. So less of the collected energy powers the load than powers the destruction of the dipole. Hence we have to continually turn the shaft of the generator, to make some more internal magnetic energy, in order to continually force the charges apart again and remake the dipole—that our inane closed current loop circuit keeps destroying faster than the load is powered.
The ultimate "fuel" and fueling process is now, always has been, and always will be the conversion of time to 3-energy. Every EM circuit uses that. Every electrical power system uses it—but the electrical engineers do not even realize what actually powers every power grid and every circuit. The model they use does not even include the vacuum interaction, and it does not include a broken symmetry in that interaction, even though the charge as a set of dipoles, the energetic vacuum interaction with the charge -- and the dipole's broken symmetry in that interaction -- has been proven for more than 40 years in particle physics.
We also took the Whittaker scalar potential between the ends of each dipole, corrected Whittaker's misinterpretation (he used two effects rather than a cause and an effect in an ongoing interaction) and got perfect agreement of the Whittaker decomposition of the scalar potential with the above.
An electrodynamicist who does not understand the above, just needs to discover what has been known in physics (and proven) for nearly a half century. None of the above is in Maxwell-Heaviside-Lorentz classical electrodynamics. The basis for all of it has been in particle physics and quantum field theory for decades.
There is no problem at all in extracting all the EM energy one wishes, right from space, at any point in the universe, cheaply and cleanly. The only energy problem is in (1) intercepting and catching some of the gushing energy from the dipole in an external circuit, (2) dissipating the caught FREE energy flow in a load to power it, and (3) doing it without destroying the source dipole faster than the load is powered.
It is ironic that Tesla foresaw the gist of all this. And it is even more ironic that no university or electrical engineering department or government agency even knows today precisely what powers a circuit, or what furnishes the actual EM energy to the electrical power grid. It is also ironic that the real energy problem is not being worked on by any university, by any electrical engineering department, or by any government agency anywhere in the civilized world. It is not being worked on -- or even recognized -- by the NAS or NSF, or by the DOE, or by the national laboratories, or by the leaders of the scientific community.
Every charge and dipole in the universe already proves that open EM systems in disequilibrium with the vacuum are permitted, because every EM circuit and power system is already precisely such a system.
Any scientist who ignores the source charge problem (continuous free production of 3-space EM energy, to continuously make and spread its fields and potentials and their energy) is just ill-informed or dogmatic or both. One must read the scientific literature, and not just the electrical engineering textbooks.
None of the above is in the Maxwell-Heaviside-Lorentz theory because neither modern particle physics nor quantum electrodynamics nor special and general relativity nor quantum mechanics nor quantum field theory had yet been born, when Maxwell wrote his theory.
To make it worse, in the 1880s Lorentz's symmetrical regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations unwittingly discarded all Maxwellian systems far from equilibrium with their active environment. That is why the source charge problem was never solved: The solution does not even exist in the altered classical electrodynamics once the Lorentz symmetry condition has been imposed, and the equations simplified so they no longer prescribe any EM systems in disequilibrium with their active environment.
In short, Lorentz effectively eliminated any net effect from the EM system's active environment. Effectively he eliminated the electrical windmills, except those built in a closed barn where no free environment energy flow (wind) could reach them and affect them and be used by them.To continue to adhere to more than a century old fraction of the theory (Maxwell's seminal paper was published in 1865, and lists his 20 quaternion-like equations and his 20 unknowns) is ridiculous. But continuing to enforce this great curtailment and self-limitation of Maxwell's theory does keep that meter on the gas pump for one's automobile, and keeps that electrical meter on one's house. And it keeps those train loads of coal and pipelines of natural gas and tankers of oil flowing to the power plants to be burned to boil the water to make steam to power the steam turbines to rotate the generator shafts to make the source dipoles that then extract the EM energy from the vacuum, transduce it, and furnish it out of the terminals and along the conductors of the power grid so that some can be caught to power the power grid loads and losses. But half of what is caught in the grid is then deliberately used to continuously destroy that source dipole in the distant generator, due to the ubiquitous usage of the closed current loop circuit, thus destroying the "energy gusher" faster than the load can be powered.
So we stress that Lorentz's symmetrizing of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations (i.e., his symmetrizing of Heaviside's curtailment of the Maxwell theory) in the 1880s (after Maxwell's death) just arbitrarily discarded all open EM systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium with their active environment. Hardly any universities and electrical engineering departments even teach that. Most do not even realize it. Tesla knew it, and also understood how to shuttle the potential energy around in his circuits at will. Oddly, Tesla's shuttling of the potential energy around in his patented circuits cannot even be seen by the standard vector or tensor electrodynamics analysis. It can be seen, however, in a higher group symmetry electrodynamics, such as quaternions. E.g., for the proof see T. W. Barrett, "Tesla's Nonlinear Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Theory," Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 16(1), 1991, p. 23-41.
In short, Lorentz changed Maxwell-Heaviside theory so that it no longer permits or includes the action ongoing by the source charge, since by the resulting enforced 3-space observation every charge and dipole in the universe violated the energy conservation law and is a perpetual motion machine, freely creating from nothing that freely outpoured EM energy in 3-space.
Again, that is why the source charge problem was not resolved. The solution does not even exist in the very limited Maxwell-Heaviside-Lorentz curtailed model now used by the classical electrodynamicists and electrical engineers. And used in the design of every power system.
So the interested electrodynamicist has a choice: Either he can change his model and update that ancient 1865 Maxwell theory (as further curtailed by Heaviside and again by Lorentz), or he can go down in history as ardently being one of the greatest perpetual motion advocates of all time, since he advocates either willingly or unwillingly that (1) every charge in the universe is a perpetual motion machine already, freely creating and gushing forth energy from nothing, and (2) conservation of energy is therefore not a viable law in the universe. In his advocated model, the charge and the dipole are inescapably perpetual motion machines. In a more complete and more advanced model, they are not perpetual motion machines at all, but free energy converters and one of the great blessings for humanity if our scientists but realize it and use it.
So as can be seen, Tesla was correct in stating that there was enormous EM energy in space. He was also correct in stating that it can be extracted. Indeed, every charge and dipole in the universe continuously pours out EM energy, extracting it from its interaction with the virtual photon flux of the vacuum.
Quantum field theory agrees. Particle physics agrees. The 1903 Whittaker decomposition of the scalar potential, as reinterpreted, agrees.
It is only the archaic classical electrodynamics using the Lorentz regauging condition, taught in our universities and particularly in our electrical engineering departments, that still disagrees. And it is wrong, while Tesla was correct.