Hi Mitch,
The best and most thorough reply is already done by Dan Solomon and is
sitting there in the hard physics literature. Simply Google the
references;
here are just a few:
Solomon, Dan. "Some differences between Dirac's hole theory and
quantum
field theory." Can. J. Phys., Vol. 83, 2005, p. 257271.
Solomon, Dan. "Quantum states with spacelike energymomentum."
Central
European Journal of Physics (CEJP), Vol. 4(3), 2006, pp. 380392.
Solomon, Dan. (2003). "Some remarks on Dirac's hole theory versus
quantum
field theory." Can. J. Phys., Vol. 81, 2003, p. 11651175.
Solomon, Dan. "Mathematical Inconsistencies in Dirac Field Theory."
1999.
Available at quantph/9904106.
Abstract: If a mathematical theory contains incompatible
postulates
then it is likely that the theory will produce theorems or results
that are
contradictory. It will be shown that this is the case with Dirac field
theory. An example of such a contradiction is the problem associated
with
evaluating the Schwinger term. It is generally known that different
ways of
evaluating this quantity yield different results. It will be shown
that the
reason for this is that Dirac field theory is mathematically
inconsistent,
i.e., it contains incompatible assumptions or postulates. The
generally
accepted definition of the vacuum state must be modified in order to
create
a consistent theory.
Solomon, Dan.(1998). "Gauge invariance and the vacuum state." Can. J.
Phys.,
Vol. 76, 1998, p. 111127.
Solomon, Dan. "The stability of the QED vacuum in the temporal gauge."
Apeiron, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2006, p. 240.
Solomon, Dan. "A new look at the problem of gauge invariance in
quantum
field theory. Physica Scripta, Vol. 76, 2007, pp. 6471. Available at
arXiv:0706.2830.
Solomon, Dan. "Negative energy density for a DiracMaxwell field."
1999.
Available at grqc/9907060. See
http://eprintweb.org/S/authors/All/so/Solomon .
Abstract: It is well known that there can be negative energy
densities
in quantum field theory. Most of the work done in this area has
involved
free noninteracting systems. In this paper we show how a quantum
state with
negative energy density can be formulated for a Dirac field
interacting with
an Electromagnetic field. It will be shown that, for this case, there
exist
quantum states whose average energy density over an arbitrary volume
is a
negative number with an arbitrarily large magnitude.
Solomon, Dan. "Some new results concerning the vacuum in Dirac's hole
theory," Physica Scripta, Vol. 74, 2006, p. 117122.
Abstract: "In Dirac's hole theory (HT), the vacuum state is
generally
believed to be the state of minimum energy. It will be shown that this
is
not, in fact, the case and that there must exist states in HT with
less
energy than the vacuum state. It will be shown that energy can be
extracted
from the HT vacuum state through application of an electric field."
Comment:
Lists references of work in this area, by himself and several other
researchers, for some time (since 1999). Quote: ".energy can be
extracted
from the HT [hole theory] vacuum state through application of an
electric
field."
Comment: This is a process that John Bedini has been successfully
using
for nearly 20 years.
Solomon, Dan]. "Negative energy density for a DiracMaxwell field."
July 18,
1999.
http://www.arxiv.org/ftp/grqc/papers/9907/9907060.pdf .
Abstract: "It is well know that there can be negative energy
densities
in quantum field theory. Most of the work done in this area has
involved
free noninteracting systems. In this paper we show how a quantum
state with
negative energy density can be formulated for a Dirac field
interacting with
an Electromagnetic field. It will be shown that for this case there
exist
quantum states whose average energy density over an arbitrary volume
is a
negative number with an arbitrarily large magnitude."
Those papers answer the question very thoroughly and completely.
Blunt truth is that the early guys (Dirac and most of the others)
hated
negative energy and tried to get rid of it, by whatever means was
necessary.
So they declared a "hole" a "hill", calling the hole a positron (it is
actually a negative mass energy electron, which then outputs negative
energy
photons. This is a violation of common arithmetic, because it claims
that
(zero minus one equals plus one).
Negative mass energy entities comprise the "dark matter" the
astrophysicists
are so frantically seeking, while the negative energy photons
continually
poured out by a hole (as a source charge) makes negative energy EM
fields 
the dark energy that the astrophysicists are also so fervently
seeking.
Dark matter charges and their concomitant outrushing dark energy EM
fields
are made inside stars, planets, etc. by sharp gradient processes
(which also
are certified (in nonequilibrium thermodynamics) as allowing violation
of
the old second law of equilibrium thermodynamics.
E.g., see
Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat
Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, New York, 1998, reprinted
with corrections 1999.
Areas known to violate the old second law are given on p. 459.
One area is strong gradients (as used in the MEG and particularly by
John Bedini in his tremendous batterycharging circuits) and another
is memory of materials (as used in the MEG in the nanocrystalline core
materials and layered crystalline structures to invoke the
AharonovBohm effect). We strongly comment that these known,
recognized mechanisms allow macroscopic and significant violations of
the Second Law that are directly usable in real systems and circuits.
Quoting, p. 459, on areas that violate thermodynamics:
"Some of these areas are
(1) "... rarefied media, where the idea of local equilibrium fails.
The average energy at each point depends on the temperature at the
boundaries. Important astrophysical situations belong to this
category."
(2) "...strong gradients, where we expect the failure of linear laws
such as the Fourier law for heat conduction. Not much is known either
experimentally or theoretically. Attempts to introduce such nonlinear
outcomes ... have led to 'extended thermodynamics'."
(3) "...memory effects which appear for long times (as compared to
characteristic relaxation times). ...nonequilibrium processes may
have 'long timetails'...".
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics has also shown that increasing chaos at
one
level will also start establishing order at the "longer range" level.
E.g.,
quoting Kondepudi and Prigogine:
"One aspect is common to all these nonequilibrium situations, the
appearance
of longrange coherence. Macroscopically distinct parts become
correlated.
This is in contrast to equilibrium situations where the range of
correlations is determined by shortrange molecular forces. As a
result,
situations which are impossible to realize at equilibrium become
possible in
farfromequilibrium situations. This leads to important applications
in a
variety of fields. [Dilip Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern
Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley,
Chichester, 1998, p. xii.]
"Equilibrium thermodynamics was an achievement of the nineteenth
century,
nonequilibrium thermodynamics was developed in the twentieth century,
and
Onsager's relations mark a crucial point in the shift of interest away
from
equilibrium to nonequilibrium. . due to the flow of entropy, even
close to
equilibrium, irreversibility can no more be identified with the
tendency to
disorder. [since it can] . produce both disorder . and order." [Dilip
Kondepudi and Ilya Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines
to
Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998, p. xv.]
Even James Clerk Maxwell knew that the smaller internal parts of a
macrosystem in equilibrium are continually violating the hoary old
second
law. Quoting:
"The truth of the second law is a statistical, not a mathematical,
truth,
for it depends on the fact that the bodies we deal with consist of
millions
of molecules. Hence the second law of thermodynamics is continually
being
violated, and that to a considerable extent, in any sufficiently small
group
of molecules belonging to a real body." [J. C. Maxwell, "Tait's
Thermodynamics II," Nature 17, 278280 (7 February 1878)].
John Bedini has been evoking and using dark matter (negative mass
energy
Dirac holes) and dark energy (their negative energy EM fields) in his
battery charging circuits for about 20 years! He has found how to make
it
work like a charm. He should have actual units on the market shortly
(they
are entering into production as I write this). Further, on his special
wellmoderated website, dozens of dedicated independent researchers
have now
successfully replicated Bedini overunity systems.
That of course completes the final requirement of the scientific
method,
which is independent replication. At that point, any theory that
disagrees
with the replicated and thus proven experiments has to be changed 
if one
is to follow scientific method rather than dogma.
Best wishes,
Tom Bearden
Subject: Dotson on Dirac
Date: Sat, 7 Jul 2007 00:37:22 0500
I found an interesting article by D.L. Hotson, "Dirac's Equation and
the Sea of Negative Energy," in two parts at
>http://www.openseti.org/Docs/HotsonPart1.pdf
and http://www.openseti.org/Docs/HotsonPart2.pdf
that might interest Mr. Bearden.
Dotson's interpretation of Dirac's equation would seem to speak (at
least to my understanding) of the same sea of negative (vacuum) energy
of which Mr. Bearden theorizes. I wonder if he would care to comment on
this, specifically where he might disagree with Dotson/ Dirac, if he
should find the time and interest.
Regards,
Mitch S.
