The Tom Bearden Website |

Subject: RE: Maxwell Date: Tue, 7 Mar 2006 19:02:11 -0600
David,
Maxwell's real "primary theory" was published as James Clerk Maxwell, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," Royal Society Transactions, Vol. CLV, 1865, p 459. The paper was read before the Society on Dec. 8, 1864. It is included in The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, 2 vols. bound as one, edited by W. D. Niven, Dover, New York, 1952, Vol. 1, p. 526-597. Two errata are given on the unnumbered page prior to page 1 of Vol. 1. In this 1865 paper Maxwell presents his seminal theory of electromagnetism, containing 20 equations in 20 unknowns. His general equations of the electromagnetic field are given in Part III, General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field, p. 554-564. On p. 561, he lists his 20 variables. On p. 562, he summarizes the different subjects of the 20 equations, being three equations each for magnetic force, electric currents, electromotive force, electric elasticity, electric resistance, total currents; and one equation each for free electricity and continuity. In the paper, Maxwell adopts the approach of first arriving at the laws of induction and then deducing the mechanical attractions and repulsions. Maxwell himself was pressured intensely to change from his "horrid" quaternion-like mathematics theory (20 equations in 20 unknowns). Hamilton's quaternions were advanced and backed by a gruff, quarrelsome fellow, Tate, who almost no one could get along with. The math of the day was quite simplified. Vector algebra, e.g., had not yet been born, and in fact it got born because of the work (by Heaviside, Gibbs, Hertz and others) to simplify Maxwell's work. There were less than three dozen "electrodynamicists" in the entire world in the 1880s, even after Maxwell's death in 1879. The electron had not been discovered, and the "atom" was still just a theory. Everyone still believed in the material ether, and also believed that only force fields were real and that potentials were just mathematical conveniences having no physical reality. Maxwell's own previous electromagnetic theorizing had been very "mechanical" and generally followed Faraday's belief in "lines of force" in space around conductors etc. To Maxwell, these were very material things -- in short, the material ether was a very firm part of his thinking, and also was a firm part of the thinking of Faraday and most others. See Maxwell, James Clerk, "On Faraday's Lines of Force," Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. X, Part I., p. TBD, 1855-56. Read Dec. 10, 1855 and Feb. 11, 1856. Also see Maxwell, James Clerk, "On Physical Lines of Force," Philosophical Magazine, Vol. XXI, Mar., Apr., and May 1861; Jan. and Feb. 1862. In 1868, Maxwell used an electrical derivation of his theory instead of the previous dynamical derivation. See Maxwell, James Clerk, "On a Method of Making a Direct Comparison of Electrostatic with Electromagnetic Force; with a Note on the Electromagnetic Theory of Light," Philosophical Magazine, Vol. CLVIII, 1868. Eventually Maxwell retired to his estate, and after some years of hard work he produced the first edition of his famous Treatise. See Maxwell, James Clerk, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1873. This was just six years before his death. During this time, the Maxwell theory had not really made very much progress, and though considered of importance, it was not considered anything very spectacular -- much of this being because of its "considered too difficult" mathematics and the residues of the "terrible quaternions". Even Maxwell's own publisher strongly criticized to Maxwell his use of this horrid mathematical style which was so much opposed, as the publisher considered that was cause of the theory meeting with such opposition. Taken aback, Maxwell himself set upon greatly simplifying his own mathematics, by going back through his Treatise and re-doing it. He had finished doing this for about 80% of the book (the first nine chapters or so) when he died of stomach cancer in 1879. After his death, a modified second edition was published in 1881. Foreword to the second edition was by Niven, who finished the work past where Maxwell had dramatically rewritten the first nine chapter. Some new matter was added and the former contents rearranged and simplified. The rest of the second edition is therefore largely a reprint from the first edition. The third edition was published in 1891, volumes 1 and 2. This third edition was then edited by J. J. Thomson and a new third edition was published in 1892, by Oxford University Press (much later this one was published unabridged, Dover Publications, New York, 1954). J. J. Thomson finished the publication of the third edition, and wrote a "Supplementary Volume" with his notes. A summary of Maxwell's equations are given in Vol. II, Chapter IX of the third edition. However, Maxwell had gone (in his work for the second edition) to some pains to reduce the quaternion expressions himself, so as not to require the students to know the calculus of quaternions (so stated on p. 257). We note that Maxwell did not finish the second edition, but died before that. He actually had no hand at all in the third edition as to any changes. The Second edition was later finished by Niven by simply adding the remaining material from the previous first edition approved by Maxwell. The printing of the first nine chapters of the third edition was already underway when J. J. Thomson was assigned to finish the editing of the manuscript. Quoting Paul Nahin, "Oliver Heaviside," Scientific American, 262(6), June 1990, p. 124:
Quote p. 124: "Heaviside vastly simplified Maxwell's 20 equations in 20 variables by squeezing their essence into two equations written in two variables (the variables described the magnetic and electric field vectors). Much of the theoretical work was done in parallel with Hertz, who graciously noted in his book on electric waves that "Mr. Heaviside has the priority." ... "For some years the reformulated equations were called the Hertz-Heaviside equations, and later the young Einstein referred to them as the Maxwell-Hertz equations. Today only Maxwell's name is mentioned." ..."Together with Josiah Williard Gibbs of Yale University, Heaviside taught vectors to the world's physicists." Summarizing on p. 124: "Heaviside vastly simplified Maxwell's 20 equations in 20 variables by squeezing their essence into two equations written in two variables (the variables described the magnetic and electric field vectors)." We also point out that Heaviside never attended university, and was self-taught. He was brilliant, but hated quaternions and potentials. For potentials, he stated that they should "be murdered from the theory". Today, in modern quantum theory we know that it is the potentials that have the primary reality, and the force fields are merely constructed from them (by their interaction in and with charged matter). So, as one can see, Maxwell had been dead quite a few years prior to the dramatic reduction of his equations and theory and the emergence of vector analysis. Maxwell's theory did not gain prominence until Hertz and Lodge had experimentally detected electromagnetic waves. The much-reduced Heaviside-Gibbs-Hertz limited version of Maxwell's theory, with the added Lorentz symmetrization and arbitrary discarding of all asymmetrical Maxwellian systems, has since been taught as "Maxwell's theory". It is Heaviside's equations and Heaviside's notations, as further limited by Lorentz. In 1892 Lorentz added the coup de grace to even this much-reduced Heaviside vector theory with simple equations and much fewer potentials. Lorentz arbitrarily symmetrized the equations to make them simpler yet, so that closed algebraic solutions could usually be found and one would not have to use numerical methods so widely. He did it merely to simplify the equations to NEW equations having much easier solutions! That he changed the potentials was considered of no consequence, so long as no NET translation force field emerged (even though two new force fields were arbitrarily introduced). Contrast this to the "argument" that a man standing between two elephants pushing against each other and against him, is no different than the man standing between two fleas pushing against each other and against him. To anyone who believes that, he can stand between the elephants and we will stand between the fleas -- and then we will compare notes on whether or not our systems are "the same". Opposing forces equal and opposite comprise a stress potential, and two systems with differing stress potentials are most certainly not "the same thing". Indeed, the two free fields that symmetrization introduced, represent free "EM energy from the vacuum" introduced into the system, and then "locked up" in it as stress potential. It deliberately is not allowed to translate electrons, but only to change the physical stress of the system. In short, it is a very convenient way to "lock up" and not use that extra EM field energy from the vacuum that was generated and used in the two equal and opposite new fields. At the time, by his symmetrization of the Heaviside-Maxwell equations, Lorentz had just (unknowingly and unrecognized to anyone else) discarded all nature's permissible asymmetrical Maxwellian systems -- the very ones that contained the entire class of Maxwellian systems capable of freely receiving energy from the vacuum, creating a NET translation force field in its charged matter system, and using it to push current through loads and power them freely. None of this was originally done "diabolically" but only in a desperate attempt to get something developed that would be simple and also useful. Most of particle physics had not been discovered, there was no special and general relativity, no quantum mechanics or quantum electrodynamics, no quantum field theory, no Yang-Mills theory, etc. The electron had not been discovered, and most of those early scientists believed firmly in the thin material ether assumed in the various versions of the theory by Maxwell, Heaviside, Hertz, Gibbs, Lodge, and others. In that period, also there were less than three dozen "electrodynamicists" in the entire world. In 1887 the material ether was falsified experimentally. Not a single Maxwell-Heaviside-Lorentz equation has ever been changed to correct the theory accordingly and eliminate its continued assumption of a material ether and therefore force fields in mass-free space. After all, space was thought to be filled with a thin material fluid, and so -- to them -- there was no single point in all the universe where mass was absent. Force was considered the only reality; the potentials were not even considered physically real, but just considered to be mathematical conveniences. Hence the electrodynamicists believed that they could change the potentials any way they wished (regauge at will), so long as the two new free force fields that emerged were equal and opposite, so that no NET translation force field emerged (even though two new ones did including with their field energies). In short, that was Lorentz symmetrization. The conventional EEs were and are trained in a symmetrical theory which only prescribes Lorentz-symmetrical circuits. They were and are taught to build circuits where the source dipole inside the generator is left wired into the source generator's own external circuit as a load while current is flowing. The result is to equalize the back emf (translation force field that must be opposed by all current pumped back through the generator) and the forward emf (translation force field that pushes the current to flow through the external circuit and thus enables powering the external circuit's loads and losses. This inane practice thus produces only circuits and electrical power systems that use precisely half their freely collected potential energy from the vacuum, to do naught but destroy the source dipolarity that is furnishing the energy flow from the vacuum in the first place, quite freely. Electrical engineers and electrical engineering do not calculate the EM field in space, though all purport to do so, and they are not even taught what powers the electrical circuit itself. They are erroneously taught that cranking the shaft of the generator produces mechanical energy that eventually gets transduced into the Poynting energy flowing along the conductors of the external circuit, through surrounding space, and getting diverged into the circuit to potentialize the charges q. Electrical engineers falsely assume an inert vacuum and a flat spacetime. When the Lorentz condition is violated, or the energy density in the circuit changes, this is not true. Rigorous proof that eliminating the arbitrary Lorentz condition provides systems having free additional energy currents from the vacuum is given by M. W. Evans et al., "Classical Electrodynamics without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Physica Scripta, Vol. 61, 2000, p. 513-517. After the rise of particle physics, special and general relativity, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, quantum field theory, gauge field theory etc., most of modern physics was born. Along the way the errors in CEM/EE were noted now and then by various scientists, including some Nobelists and other eminent scientists. In 1957, the prediction and proof of broken symmetry in physics electrified all physics and resulted in the prompt award of the Nobel Prize to Lee and Yang for predicting it. One of those proven broken symmetries that so revolutionized modern physics is that of the separation of opposite charges -- the common dipole. Broken symmetry -- in Lee's words -- means "something virtual has become observable". For the source dipole, it means that the charges of the dipolarity continuously absorb virtual photon energy from the seething vacuum, transduce it coherently and integrate it to the next quantum level of excitation, then abruptly the quantum excitation decays and the dipole emits a real, observable photon. The process iterates continually, so that any common little charge or dipole is actually (1) a true Maxwellian demon, absorbing ordered virtual energy from the seething virtual state vacuum and (2) a real physical system continually producing negative entropy in total violation of the hoary old second law of thermodynamics (in accord with the theoretical proof that such systems are permitted, as shown by D. J. Evans and Lamberto Rondoni, "Comments on the Entropy of Nonequilibrium Steady States," J. Stat. Phys., 109(3-4), Nov. 2002, p. 895-920). Here the knowledge in thermodynamics that disordered statistical systems are comprised of parts that continually violate the second hoary old law of thermodynamics is of importance. Maxwell -- also a thermodynamicist -- realized this in the latter 1800s. Quoting:
I crudely solved the "source charge problem" (how the source charge sits there and pours out real EM energy continuously, without any OBSERVABLE EM energy input) in 1999 and published it in 2000 and subsequently, gradually improving it as time passed. We finally realized that, in conceiving and modeling the virtual particles themselves that continually appear and disappear in the seething virtual state vacuum, physicists have actually conceived each virtual particle (during its momentary existence) as an already-perfectly ordered entity! In short, the entire statistical vacuum is of course disordered, but each virtual particle WHILE IT MOMENTARILY EXISTS is totally ordered! Thus in continually absorbing virtual photons from the statistically disordered vacuum, the charge is absorbing ORDERED entities serially that have momentarily already violated the second law of thermodynamics. The absorbing charge changes each virtual increment of photon energy to a virtual increment of mass-energy, thereby coherently summing (integrating) the mass-energy of the charge which continually increases. When the next quantal level of excitation is reached by this increasing virtual state excitation, the zitterbewegung of the vacuum violently "kicks out" a real, observable photon, so that the excitation abruptly decays back to the starting level by that emission. This repeats continually -- hence every charge and dipole is both a Maxwell's demon (selecting only ordered particles to absorb and integrate) and a Feynman ratchet (coherently integrating these ordered virtual increments to the next full quantized photon). So nature has been most kind. The universe is filled with absolutely free energy sources -- every charge and dipole in the entire universe. Every one is continually extracting energy from the vacuum in virtual state but coherent form, integrating it to observable magnitude, and thus emitting a continual outflow of real observable photons -- real EM energy -- in all directions. And every charge and dipole in the universe is continually violating the present hoary old flawed second law of thermodynamics. Every EM field and its energy, and every EM potential and its energy, are thus continuous outflows of real photons and real EM energy from the source charges. Every observable joule of EM energy in the universe is and has been extracted directly from the seething virtual state vacuum by its associated source charges. Cranking the shaft of the generator has nothing to do with inputting the energy used to generate the Poynting energy flow in a system! It only has to do with physically forcing the internal opposite charges inside the generator apart, thereby producing the source dipole that does the extracting of that real Poynting energy from the virtual state vacuum. It is the proven broken symmetry of this source dipolarity that produces all EM energy flowing out of the generator terminals and onto the power line. And all its energy input comes directly from the seething vacuum. Indeed, when we go back and account for the long-neglected, mind-boggling extra curled Heaviside energy flow that also gets extracted and poured out, but does not usually diverge and so does not interact with anything -- every generator and battery and dipole actually outputs something like a trillion times as much EM energy as our electrical engineers account and are aware of. Obviously the mechanical energy input into the shaft of the generator is nothing even remotely resembling the magnitude of that enormous but long ignored and arbitrarily discarded curled component of the energy flow. Also, in modern physics the classical so-called "isolated charge" is quite a different creature from how we are taught to envision it classically. It is in fact an infinite bare charge in the middle, having infinite energy, and it polarizes its surrounding virtual state vacuum. The surrounding polarized vacuum has an infinite charge of the opposite sense, also having infinite energy. But the difference between these two infinite quantities is FINITE. Consequently, our instruments -- peering through the outside screen of the surrounding vacuum -- sees that finite difference as the so-called "isolated charge". But any charge -- even a single electron -- involves infinite energies and infinite charges. So it is not accidental that the lowly "charge" can continually output real EM energy at a finite rate, for any finite time. Infinite energies and charges can do that. Here's how Nobelist Weinberg puts it:
So every EM system we ever built has and did and does extract all its EM energy directly from the seething vacuum. There is no observable EM energy, field, or potential in the entire universe that has come from anywhere BUT being extracted from the seething virtual state vacuum. We have never had a problem of the AVAILABILITY of energy -- all we wish, anywhere, anytime. Just make a little charge (and consider its dipolarity). Once made and the work to make it is paid for, then it will sit there and freely pour out real, observable EM energy from now till the end of time, if we just let it alone and do not "symmetrize" the circuit and have to pump all the return current back up through the back emf inside the generator. Similarly with a magnetic motor, using the back mmf. A permanent magnet dipole is just a magnetic charge dipolarity, and it too continually extracts EM energy from the vacuum and pours it out continuously. For the major errors in the present electrical engineering model (as mostly pointed out by eminent scientists, to no avail), see my paper "Errors and Omissions in the CEM/EE Model". Included in that paper is information on the magnetic Wankel engine, which easily kills its own back mmf at very little cost. The result is an engine that can continually and freely develop torque, so it can power a load at COP>1.0. The engine is also easily closed looped for self-powering (all its input energy being furnished freely from the vacuum). Any competent EE department and physics department can build one and test it if they wish. This engine and several other "free energy" Japanese engines have been ruthlessly suppressed by the Japanese Yakuza, worldwide. So the bottom line is this: Whenever our scientific community will fund and permit some sharp young doctoral candidates and post doctoral scientists to do research and work in this area, then within two years there will never again be an energy problem anywhere on earth -- or in our space capsules and space stations in orbit around the earth or in deep space. The sad part is that the scientific community's funding is largely controlled by huge cartels that do not wish (and will not permit) such work to be seriously done in our universities and great national labs. Indeed, the "big nuclear power" cartel of both industry and science is one of the most powerful -- and part of it is one of the most ruthless. It is absolutely no accident that cold fusion is being suppressed, overunity and self-powering electrical systems are being suppressed, and that the horribly flawed old CEM/EE model continues to be paramount in all our electrical power engineering, EM analysis, etc. So long as that is enforced, just so long will we continue to despoil the planet and the biosphere, keep the energy crisis escalating, spawn energy wars that may become more fierce than was WW II, and keep down much of the peoples of the world in the poor nations where they are starving, being killed by warlords and dictators, etc. And the direct cause of it is our own scientific community, for ignoring what has long been pointed out by scientists such as Feynman, Wheeler, Margenau, Bunge, and many others. One can forgive the scientific community for the first 50 years of the suppression of energy from the vacuum and asymmetrical Maxwellian system suppression -- say, until the discovery and proof of broken symmetry in 1957. Since then, the ethics of the entire organized scientific community itself are called ever more seriously into question. Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are impoverished, starving, disease-wracked, with hopeless lives. Hundreds of millions have died as a result of this eerie situation. The fragile biosphere is being steadily polluted on a grand scale. The world is already struggling to control access to the known oil and gas supplies of the world. Isn't it about time that the scientific community -- if it is to have any ethics remaining at all -- does face these facts and does fund such "energy from the vacuum" work on asymmetric power systems? And isn't it about time that this terribly flawed old CEM/EE model is sharply corrected in all our universities and in our electrical engineering departments and texts? We have only a nation and a planet and a biosphere and a humanity to save. Best wishes, Tom Bearden
Dr. Bearden Just a simple question out of curiosity, not that it will
change anything. Do you think those who destroyed Maxwell's work
and altered the course of history in doing so did so out of ignorance or
so you believe they knew or suspected the potential and altered them
with intent? |