|Subject: RE: Generation of
Date: Mon, 26 Jan 2004 16:53:15 -0600
Dear Dr. Wynsen,
In the conductors etc. of a circuit, the atoms of matter (e.g., copper) have outer electrons which are not too tightly bound. Some of these hop off and bump around, then attach to another atom, then off, then back on, etc. The hopping of these electrons creates what is called the Drude electron gas in the wire (simplest view). Because of the extremely small size of the atoms and the electrons, there are incredible numbers of these electrons in the electron gas.
When we create a current in the wire, the electrons "migrate" slowly down the wire, for nominal cases perhaps a few inches per hour. The SIGNAL energy races down the wire (outside it) at near light speed, coupling to the charges in the Drude gas as it goes, and potentializing them. Also develops the emf that forces against the electrons.
But the electrons actually mostly move laterally in the wire. An electron is spinning like a gyro (classical analogy; can't press it too far), and it is quite restrained longitudinally down the wire by repulsion from all the electrons ahead of it. So it precesses, which means it continually moves axially in the wire, toward the outside, then back to the other side, etc. The electrons spend far more of their time moving laterally, than moving longitudinal down the wire.
So a "current" is actually a "gentle drift" of lots and lots of precessing electrons, hopping mostly laterally and going bananas.
The circuit does not "make" electrons, nor does the generator, but merely potentializes those already there. Gradually the electrons do move down the wire (nominally a few inches per hour) down the main line, and they also are forced back through the ground return line and back across the back emf inside the generator, to the top again where they are again potentialized. And so on.
This and other things related to it were established around 1900 or so, give or take a few years. The current process is pretty well understood.
There is of course a slow migration of the "excess positive charges" left on those atoms where the electron hopped off into the Drude gas. One can consider that a "hole" in the Drude electron gas, or just consider it a migrating positive charge whose migration is of course tied to that of the electrons.
Date: Mon, 26 Jan 2004 1-15-04
To T.E.Bearden, Phd.
I have read some of your work on the net about electric generation. I have some questions that I wonder if you might comment on. I am not a physicist, but rather a retired pediatrician who has in interest in this subject and others in physics. I read the book Nothingness, by Henning Genz, and some works of Alan Guth. I am fascinated by the vacuum. But here are my questions. I have read that when a moving wire of conducting material is moved past the lines of force of a magnet that an electron is generated. I have also read that when a wire is moved past the lines of force of a magnet, an electromotive force is generated. As far as I can see, an electromotive force is a charge, which is itself associated with a particle (in this case an electron) But no one says how. I have also been told by a physicist that the moving wire generates an electric field( but did not say how this occurs), and an electric field develops around a charge and its particle, and that the electrons are forced by the the potential developed to move along the wire in the conduction band in the metal.. As you can see, these statements can be confusing to such as myself. The question came up in my mind after thinking about the massive electric generators at places like Hoover dam. I wondered how they could continue to put out such huge amounts of electricity (electrons), which everyone says is stored in the wires, for years on end. They say the electrons are simply circulated around the circuit, as is defined by the continuity equation. I believe that you have indicated that the Lorenz equations have been modified, and that the analogy to water in a pipe is false. My thesis is that the electrons are generated in the vacuum as a result of input of energy from the water falling, for example, and that the electrons are moving back and forth, and being replaced as needed by the vacuum. The electrons go to LA and back and lose energy, and are also lost themselves. How could they all come back to the generator? The virtual particles are in constant come and go state, and when energy enough is provided a new electron is generated. Other ones losing energy, are absorbed back into the vacuum. Everything I have read about this indicates that I am wrong. Tough to fight the whole world. I realize that the generation and transmission of electricity long distances is much more complex than I am indicating here, but for simplicity I have tried to keep to the basic concept. Thanks for any help you can offer. It is apparent that my idea is way out in regard to standard thought, but I wonder if it has any validity at all. I hate to be a fool, but hope you can shed some light on this for me.